our globe
Global Studies Notes, 1
Fred Hansen, Winter, 2005
Notes, Part 2
Notes, Part 3
Notes, Part 4

  • These lectures were conducted at Semester at Sea, Winter, 2005, by Prof. Robert Fessler, Global Studies Coordinator. This part covers lectures from Vancouver to Honolulu.
  • Most of these notes were entered in real time during the lecture.
    Beware: I get things wrong.
  • Personal comments are usually enclosed in {...}

Physiography of the World
map of world

map of Asia
(many maps are from the shipboard folder \\Fs2\Academic\Resources\Maps etc\Political Maps)

Thursday, January 20
cap Fessler begins every lecture with, "Good morning," in a very quiet voice. The students quickly respond by quieting themselves.

This morning Fessler announced the course's major theme:
One world, many world views.

The discussion continued with basic stuff about how come there are different cultures and different roles in each culture.  Arrow maker, potter, healer, ... Differing explanations for natural phenomena: lightning, birth, death. Develop world view. Pass on to children two ways: explicit and implicit. Explicit is called socialization. Implicit is enculturation. Example of enculturation: size of personal space.

Ethnocentrism and cultural relativity. Ethnocentrism--ours is the right world view. Others are inferior.  Some Africans have foot reflex at an earlier age than Europeans. So Europeans call is African precociousness; not European retardation.
A group of students were invited to participate in a Sufi ("whirling dervish") dance. They were excited and went forward. At the door, the men were admited, but the women directed to the balcony with the Sufi women.  Only one of the students "got it." She sat beaming in the balcony, proud of her male companions. She was not less disappointed tto not dance than the other women, but she was prepared to fully partake in the Sufi experience. For women, that means looking on. A different ethos than modern Western women may expect.
Opposite of ethnocentrism is cultural relativity.

Comparing cultures. dimensions. 

Individualism ... collectivism.  Where is the self located? Americans: behind face. Other cultures: hearts or stomachs. In individualistic societies the world view describes a person bounded by skin. "I have a brain." So what is "I?" "My body" is not "me." "Growing up" means gaining independence, autonomy. Can choose ones own relationships. Americans are at the far individualistic end of the continuum. Most of the cultures we visit will be more collective. Americans separate infants for sleep. Other cultures view this as child abuse. In Japan, boss sits in the middle; a corner office is a demotion.

Friday, January 21
Fessler: Continuing with One world, many world views.

Individualism ... collectivism, cont'd
Obligation and duty are not oppression in a collectivist society. What the group wants is more important than my own wants. Identity in collectivist society is much broader. Not just a personal identity lopped inside your skin. Language: for us: "I", "me", and a name; in collective society, multiple names reflective of place in a larger whole. Name might be "daughter of so-and-so." Different words for "I". Koreans may say "we think" meaning "I think."

Exercise: pay attention to actual concrete experience. Look down at self and see what you see. Legs, stomach, chest, shoulders, arms,  hairy. On top of shoulders: a roomful of people.

A second dimension of culture comparison:
       continuum from dominance hierarchies to egalitarianism.
Many cultures have dominance hierarchies. People at top values more. Most cultures have a gender heirarchy. Males valued more. We will visit cultures with stronger gender hierarchy than US. Age hierarchy in US is inverted V. Top is 25-40. Attractiveness hierarchy. Class hierarchy; sometimes based on birth. US class system mostly based on $.

Third dimension: traditional vs modern societies. Modern society is technologically advanced, economically developed. People educated, literate, rational. Scintific explanation for reality; not supernatural. Expectation of continuous change: "progress"; things will be better. In a traditional society. Low tech. Less economic development. Less specialization. Supernatural explanation for reality: spirits, karma. Tradition is valued; low expectation of change. (fred: Are the red states more traditional?) Cities more modern, rural areas more traditional. India is two-tier: internet everywhere; one-third of city people without sanitation. Some McDonalds in Japan have a man hired solely to bow to customers in the drivein lane. Pizza huts in many foreign cities have very different toppings.

Saturday, January 22
Fessler: Faculty members have their own world views. Today Rebecca Youmans to get inside the world of biology; specifically the oceans and Dennis Waring to talk about music.

nine dots in a 3x3 squareProf. Rebecca Youmans: Nine dot puzzle: Draw a continuous line of four segments that goes through all nine dots. Think outside the box. (Click the diagram to see the solution).

Types of whales: baleen, toothed. Baleen: filter feeders, slower, 2 blow holes. Toothed: predators, faster 1 blow hole.  Sea turtles. Depend on diet and what is around. Hawksbill dine on sponges (essentially glass). Leatherbacks eat jelly fish with spines in throat to shred them.  Jellyfish (Cnidaria). Spear guns with triggering mechanism. If they sting you, they waste their swtingers. Some in the jellyfish phyllum are coral polyps. Symbiotic algae supply extra energy for creating the shell. Night. Bioluminescence. Oxidation of luciferin. From many little organisms. Bacteria, radiolarians, flagelates. Best is in Peurto Rico. Ships that pump salt water through toilets will bioluminesce. Flying fish. large pectoral fins. (52 species in family Exocoetidae). Oceanic birds. Glide without flapping. Wind is airfoil. Demo: strip of paper under lower lip. Mangrove ecosystem.

Our other ship, the earth. Need to talk to our cabin mates. Closing quote "Let us take strength from the stars to feel that we are one in solidarity."

Prof. Dennis Waring, Ethnomusicoligist.  We need to greet each other as human beings.  "Ethno" - "the other". Nope, we are all ethnic. "Music" may be silence. "Ology" - the study of.  "Ethnomuicology is the study of music within its social, historical, ... context."

1. Why music? Every culture has music. (Fred: Australian aborigines use music to preserve culture.)  Expressive culture. Perhaps preceded spoken language. Spoken language has everything of music: Pitch, cadence, pace, ... . Do anumals do music? Do birds "sing" or just make noise because that is what they do? Research suggest they sing to express emotion. <humpback whale song>  Animals express territoriality and sex. People use music to place self in social matrix. "You are what you listen to." Chaleenge you to find the viability in all sorts of music. You needn't like all music, but you should respect all music.

2. East asian music. Chinese music is identifiable, even by first graders. <example> Pentatonic scale. All pitched higher than American music. No basso profundos in Chinese opera. Melodic. Rich tambres. Straight-forward rhythms. Tourist shows are a way to preserve culture. <example of loud Japanese music "eieio">

3. "World music"?  Crusades picked up a lot of good stuff. Mandolin, tympani, violin, .... But world music is the product of big capitalism. A McDonaldization of world culture. All the same product with little nutritional value. We will find, loud rap techno beat folded in with indigenous music. Good or bad? Don't know. That is up to the students here. We can all celebrate music.

Fessler:  Class folder for Global Studies has: Blank map of Asia. List of all countries in Asia. Brief description of first test. (Last day before Korea.)

Sunday, January 23
Fessler:  Japan
(Fessler lived and worked in Japan for a number of years.)
map of Japan
127 million people
area the size of California
but 70% of area uninhabitable
->Very densey popuated
~30 million people live where we will be docking
Negligible natural resources
    no coal, oil, timber, iron ore, ...
Must also import food
Despite this, one of the most economically developed countries in the word.
99.9% literacy
highest life expectancy
very modern society
    100% homes have TV and phone
Nonetheless strong roots in tradition

How Japan fits in themes
    collectivism vs. individualism
          far more collective than US
    identity is the groups you are part of
       "wa" means harmony; extremely important to maintain
             no disturbance, confrontation
   hierarchy vs egalitarianism
       very strict hierarchy in Japan
          strongly affects personal relationships

Japan History (selective)
    historically a closed society   (fred: so how did they get resources?)
    very homogeneous society (99.4% are ethnically Japanese)
       thus easier to be accurate with generalizations
    4 main islands; ~4000 small islands
    descendants of Chinese, Koreans, South Pacific, Ainu (caucasian)
       formed by a god and goddess; descended to Japan; bore Kami
       Kami are the ancestors
    ethnocentric (like all cultures)
    animistic belief system - Shinto
       thus necessary to live in harmony with nature
             (fred: needed to conserve resources?)
    650 BCE first Tenno  (tain-no)   "emperor" "loyal son of heaven"
          hereditary emperor
    between 300 and 700 AD, regular contact with China, Korea
          Japan absorbed lots of culture from China through Korea
                   landscaping, architecture, tea, clothing styles
                   adopted the Chinese characters for the existing oral Japanese words
    original name - Yamato "great peace"
    later Nippon - "the source of the sun" "land of the rising sun"
    Chinese name for land of rising sun: "Jihpen" -> "Japan"
    also imported Buddhism and Confuscianism
          specifically Zen Buddhism - become one
          Confuscianism is a moral or social philopsophy
                living in the "right way"
                the person at the top is okay and everyone should follow
             maintain the wa by obedience; do the right thing to fit in and maintain the wa
    only 15% of Japanese claim to be religious
    700 AD: Japan broke contact with outside world
          made he culture components into their own
          arts, crafts
          roads systems
    emperor sent princes to the provinces
          the provinces developed local power and began warring
    1192 one clan leader took over
          that leader made the emperor appoint hin Shogun  (show goon, "general")
    periodically a new general took over as shogun
          armies of professional warriors - Samurai
          eventually a hereditary profession
                and became the upper class
           four classes, in order
                   samurai, farmers, craftsmen, merchants
    had to follow the rules of members of your class
          eg: date to switch from summer to winter clothes
    lower classes had to "kowtow" to lower classes
           flat on ground, face down (or else head chopped off)
           the root of the Japanese bow
    1543 - first westerners arrived in Japan - aboard an off-course Chinese junk
          guns, tobacco, syphillis - left behind
          western traders followed
    1592 - Japan invaded Korea, brutal, enormous destruction
            beaten back, tried again
     1603 - Tokugawa shogunate (the last one)
          ban all contact with other countries
          foreigners and returning Japanese to be killed
          (at this point, ship bounced and music began, someone soon fixed it)
      Confuscianism became the moral basis for  following rules
             less need to kill people as sanction
             new sanction: shame
             giri -  obligation, duty
                     important sense of how to behave
             shame plays a role in society similar to sin in western society
    kata - "form"
    do - "way"    (do is a syllable in names of martial arts judo, aikido, kendo, ...)
                   chado - the way of tea
                   buraku - puppetry, must apprentice for years and years
                         precise movements
       there is a form or a way for doing everything
       taught from infancy on
       (music: "I don't want to talk...")
       enryo - "self restraint" deeply held sense of need
             so as to not disturb the wa
             people more impressed with people who say the least
                   make point with
       1853 - US naval squadron in Tokyo bay
             Japan was a medieval agricultural society
             US wanted to open trade
             Shogunate realized they could not fight
       1868 - Shogunate ends
             launched a major campaign to modernize
             sent out ambassadors
                   to find out the best and bring it back; adopted the models
             why invent new if there is already a way that someone else has
       by 1900 (only 32 years) one of the most modern nations in Asia
                90% literacy - highest then in Asia
                militarily strong
       began to build an empire
             acquired Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea, ...
             1910 Japan annexed Korea; occupied Korea until the end of WW II
                      especially brutal occupation
                      annihilate Korean culture, language, etc.
                      all names had to be changed to Japanese
                      100,000 "comfort women" for Japanese soldiers
             Japan joined the German side of WWII
                so they could take over from European colonists in Asia
                "Asia for Asians"
                   Indo China, Burma, Pacific Islands, ready to invade India
         1945 - Hiroshima - surrender - emperor not divine
               Japan began rebuilding society
                      demilitarization meant money could be diverted to development
                from 1960-1990 economic growth 3x any other modern country
Japan is modern, but the social patterns are still there
       there is a right way
       need to maintain the wa
       hierarchy persists

Collectivity of Japan - three segments
segment 1 - belongingness
    need to identify with group or groups; company, school, ...
       ambiguous belonging not trusted: eg Japanese American; or mixed race
    meet often with group - solidarity
    contribution to group overrides personal needs

Some Japanese signs:
     Train station:
        Please don't run when boarding the train,
            you might bump into someone
        If someone seems lost, why not help them
        Drive with a smile and good manners
        Good manners behind the wheel are better than a fancy car
        To keep things clean for others,
            let's leave our dogs home when we come here
        To make sure this is a park we can be proud of,
            let's bundle our trash and take it home
    Private driveway:
            We are sorry but we must respectfully request
            that owners of honorable cars refrain
            from parking in front of our wretched and unworthy driveway

Monday, January 24
Larry Meredith on religion.
Started with doing a take on a southern evangelist to describe his own religious upbringing:
Devil is bad
take away the D you have evil
take away the e you have vile
take away the v you have ill, which is what you are
take away the i you have L, which is where you are going

Meredith went to Cambridge MA, studied under Paul Tillich. Your God is to small
God is not a thing. God is being itself.

Randy Moss wiped has butt on goal post at Green Bay (pantomime)
This would violate confucianism. Confucius say -- remain gentlemen.

Confucius: 552 BCE - 479 BCE
6th century BCE - a series of bursts
    Buddha was a contemorary
    Lao Tsu
    founder of Janism
    Hebrew prophets
German philophers called it the Axial Age

Confucius was an administrator
    never did get the job he wanted
did collect disciples and they wrote down his sayings - The Analects
Learning is the key to Confucian culture
    no god, no other life
    essential ancient secular humanism
Confucius looked to the past to the Duke of Cho
Assume there is a human nature
    can be taught to do things the right way
Based on the Tao. The right path to walk in
talks of Yin and Yang
Jen??  -  human heartedness  Jengtsu - gentleman
    a gentleman never competes, except many very courteously
Li - the markings in jade or the grain in wood - the pattern
    Li is the human hearted pattern (Tao is pattern in nature)
5 relationships
parent child
husb wife
sib sib
friend friend
emperor people
all based on mutuality
based on trust
emperor-people based on rightness
    I serve, but the emperor serves me
       food, army,
DO NOT break the family

Buddha left his family
he is another story
born in Nepal as a Hindu
he preaches a reform Hinduism
names - Sidhartha, Gautama
4 sights  sick man, old man, dead man, monk
    Gautama horrified and leaves family
    goes to forest and fasts to find out what's wrong
    doesn't work
    meditates under a tree and gets enlightenment
    his words - Sutras - 3 baskets - "Tripideka"
the vision looks within, not the family
Sansara, the wheel of existence
    spins in ignorance
108 human desires - 108 bells
    also number of positions in Tai Chi
first noble truth
    the only result is suffering: another birth, another spin of the wheel
second noble truth
    suffering is a result of "desire" (or ambition or wants or will)
third noble truth
    there is a way out is to get rid of the desire
fourth noble truth: the way
    a new form of the Tao
       umbrella with hanging cards - the eightfold path
          all the spines lead to the top
          top is another card - nirvana - extinction, like blowing out a match
       there is no such thing as a self
1. "view" - change your world view
2. "intention" - have the right intention
3. "speech" - say the right words; don't hurt people
4. "action" - right action; don't hurt
5. "livelihood" - choose the right one
6. "effort" - focus
7. "mindfulness" -  notice everything happening around
8. "meditation" -
    zen - stop the mind so you are living totally, completely in the present

Coming to Korea
Almost half of Korea is Buddhist. And almost half Christian.
    600,000 members of one church in Seoul

Fessler: individualism vs collectivism
    hard for each of us (American) to see ourselves as a member
group gives support

Example: notion in Japan of lifetime employment
In Japan you are loyal to a company and the company takes care of you.
    The idea of job loss disturbs the wa.
Only about 1/3 of Japanese workers are really covered by lifetime employment.
Since the early 1990's, Japan in a recession. But no mass layoffs.
       4.1% unemployment is considered shocking, but is low by US standards
       Mostly new workers trying to get employment
       How: a) low productivity
             bow to drive in customers
             escalator girls wipe the handles all day
             loan to another company
             long term training
           (higher prices - pay for more employees
             Japan spends less on social welfare
                   in large part, they don't need them)
       b) Salary structure - base plus monthly bonus and many perqs
                overtime, commuter train tickets, clothing allowance, food moeny
                these perqs can be reduced in hard times
                   can reduc labor cost by 30% without firing
       c) unemployment insurance
                govt pays unemployment benefits to company
                company pays the employee
                worker may not know they are out of work
    full employment is one reason Japan is so clean
          excess employees do the cleaning

Tuesday, January 25
More about wa, enryo
More about membership in a company
All employees hired April 1
Ritual of employment start
Company song, sung with enthusiams
Company vacations and resorts
Kyoto ceramics has company tomb
"doohki" - everyone who started at the same time
start with training period
perhaps even a race; point is not to win, but ensure all finish
build group solidarity
all get same salary and same raises, at least 10 years
    all get same perqs and promotions (roughly evert ten years)
    "bucho" - division head; only a few from the dohk
       job is to maintain harmony
       others become "window sitters"
             window office and few duties
                (remember windows are less important)
"honcho" - group leader - "hon" group, "cho" leader (as in bucho)
intuitve sensing of the feelings of others
watch the listener of a sentence and change it as the reception becomes less warm
American: "I think ..." "Can't you see that ..."
    consensus more difficult
Japanese do say "no". But not so an American can understand.
    "that would be difficult" "we'll have to think about that"
The right way to ask is "Would that be difficult?"
    so "yes" means "no" I can't do that

train station announcement
    thank you noble passengers for visiting our humble station
    the next train will be here shortly
"Please excuse my terrible rudeness, but ... " means, "what is your name"
In Japan, you can't go wrong if you apologize in advance before doing anything.

To say something unpleasant
"tokoro ga" - "as for the matter at hand"
it has become necessary
can ask for "a meeting without etiquette"
    and then speak freely

"oon" (own) - a special kind of relation between people
"arigato" thanks   or "domo arigato"
can say "I'm sorry" instead of thank you for a big favor

hand gift with both hands
presentation is everything
there is not much space, so
  popular gifts are perishable gifts
    a great melon
    an ice sculpture
    a paper lantern full of fireflies
do not give four of anything
    four, shi, is also the word for death
no black and white ribbons (only funerals)

to repay big gift, can only give loyalty, obedience
    (an "oon" relationship)
if individuals have oon relationship, then so do their groups
This is a root of ancestor worship
    obligation to forebearers

    gender, age, boss-employee
each person must understand place and role
"bun" (boon) - place - your place in the hierarchy
always address a higher person with a title, not "you"
    could you suffix, "san"
in three person conversation, the middle person should switch modes
       often they just speak to the higher person

    change in identity at each transition

Three kinds of social situations
-- intimate, perhaps the year-end party
    rules don't apply
-- ritual
    ALL the rules stricty apply, maintain bun-place, ...
-- anonymous, where people don't know each other
    rules don't matter

haiku 3 line, 17 syllables: 5 7 5
replacements for MS error messages
Yesterday it worked
today it is not working
windows is like that

Three things are certain:
Death, taxes, and lost data.
Guess which has occurred.

A crash reduces
Your expensive computer
To a simple stone.

Thursday, January 27
tokoruga - as to the matter at hand
    (a gentle reference to events two nights previous)
Haiku 5,7,5   (reconstructed)
Our voyage moves on,
Bit by bit and piece by piece,
A family together.

Japan family
more like the household
    a daughter-in-law in the house has "closer" relation than a moved-out blood relative

   expected to make a man more stable

lots of arranged marriages
    less so now, but still lots
    now the family may bring forth a slate of candidates to choose from
{Fessler often uses "you" in describing behavior; with the implication that "you" are the Japanese person you are talking about}

Western culture has lots of stories aout star-crossed lovers. Romeo-Juliet and so on.
In Japan such a match is viewed as doomed
    the two are seen as untrustworthy
    and the match will be filled with tension
    this is the stuff of tragedy, not cheer

husband-wife relationship
    remember hierarchies, gender, age, so on
    still true in a marriage: husband higher than wife
    However, family is actually a matriarchy
    children raised in a mother-dominated home
       this has profound effect on entire culture
    the external display of wifely difference is just public
       privately the structure is different
    foreigners see only the outside behavior
    (home stay is unusal; home not often gotten into; private)
    wife's bun is the house; she is in charge of everything
       food, cleaning
    husband turns over paycheck to wife
       she gives him an allowance
       for more money they go to mother
    wife decides on where to live, what car to buy, schooling
       all financial decisions
    husbands primary group is the company
       wife's primary group is home
    Japanese husbands called 7-11 husbands
        leave at 7AM and return 7PM

large expense account supposed to
take people out, get them drunk, and find out what they are really like

    {roll sharply to port, starboard, port
    {bump my port forearm on squareish post

having entertained others establishes oon relation
    the guests owe the host
there are capsule hotels; beehive wall
    crawl in, pull curtain, go to sleep

wife also free to work
    as long as she has arranged for the house management
    she keeps her own salary, too
    typically cultural pressure not to work when there are pre-schoolers
    children's primary group becomes the school
day care centers are emerging
    Japanese - group
when at home, husband may have "teishu kampaku" behavior
    "petty tyrant"
    wife defers to husband
any deficiencies in husband behavior is the wife;s fault
when children misbehave mother may say: "I am sad"
    children feel mother has sacrificed and they owe her
if husband&wife get in a fight, the wife will apologize

husband may demand, say, "put on my coat" and stick out his arms
the failure to be a good wife will shame the wife's parents
Rather than shame her parents, wife takes on the guilt herself.
Wife is likely to see husband's behavior
    not as oppressive
    but love: like mother to favorite son
    indulging him
husband is expressing: "amae"
    no translation. maybe:
        "actively seeking to be a passive love object"
huge theater packed at 3 PM/. All Japanese there were women
    wives whose household was already taken care of

are the women oppressed?
    the wives don't want to change
younger people are sometimes electing not to get married

proverb: A good husband is healthy and absent.

Divorce rate is ~20 percent
Double that of a decade ago.
Divorce more likely to happen after retirement.
   There are homeless in Japan; mostly retired men.

collges competitive
only ten top universities
companies higher from the best universiites
admission by exam ONLY
    not parents, money, or connections
(very Confucian
    the people at the top must be gentlement
    people must do what they are told
it is you rmoether's job to get you into the right school
    from kindergarten on up

there is e;ementary. junior high, and higschool
    5.5 days a week
    240 day school year
          (US, 180)
    break in August, but five 4-5 hours of homework a day

curriculum similar to US
    expected level of mastery is very high
    assumption: every child can learn everything perfectly
    secret: hard work, not innate ability
if 298 of 300 students are reading at grade level,
    this is a failure; there will be meetings
every child learns to read music and do math and whatever
nothing left to chance
one correct backpack to wear
    one correct way to adjust its straps
one correct list of supplies
    3 sharpened pencils (not 2 or 4)
    all shoes point the same way in lockers
education ministry has decreed periods of temporary wildness
    say 10 minutes per hour of running around wild
    one child (rotating duty)in charge of restorng order
lunchtime - "honorable mealtime"
    served by students in classroom
many Japanese schools have no janitors
    children do the cleaning
    bonus: less dirt in the first place

hon - lots of group work
    multiple hon in a class
    they present answers to rest of class
    even for questions of personal choice

children taught Confucian ethics
    deference to teachers
    group behavior

ijime - ee gee may "bullying"
    blackmail, physical abuse, mental abuse
    about a dozen suicides per year
(in US about 5000 suicides per year)
less than one a year: murder of a school child

students 3-4 times a week go to "juku"
    cram school
    designed to produced excellence
exam is several sessions in Feb and Mar
    "Examination hell"
only 40% of high schoolers take the exam
1st stage: one day test for all students
2nd stage; two-three days of exams prepared by the U I want
    take tests for each school
tests are a regurgitation of memorized facts; no opinion
eg, obscure questions about English grammar
only 2/3s pass
    can retake each year, if you like
    "ronin" now refers to students retaking;
    they have menail jobs and keep going to cram school

hard to get kicked out of university
    because you have passed test and demonstrated latent ability
    can skip classes, can fail, ...
    no dress code
    largely free time

Tomorrow: Korea

Friday, January 28

Fessler: Exam postponed. There is only one copy,
Prof. Lee Sung Ho
Called Lee Sung in Korea
Studied in US
Interested in cross cultural studies
Differences and common features
Think over the terrifying moment yesterday
     "Immediately put on life vest."
he thought of his two daughters
then thought of colleagues, relatives in Seoul
Communication means emotional connection between people

General sketch of Korean history:
2333 BCE first kngdom KoJoSun
by first century, three kingdoms:
    Kogorea (old Korea) - North of Penninsula and much of Mongolia
       China claims it as part of China
    Pakje - Southwest of penninsula
       fine craft arts and ceramics
       sent many craftsman to Japan and influenced Japan crafts
    Shylla - Southeastern part of Penninsula
AD 676  Penninsula unified by Shylla
    Kungju was the old capitol
    2 hrs drive from Busan
Kodea dynasty followde and gave name to Korea
next 1392 - 1910
    Chosen dynasty
       adopted Confucianism
       Korean alphabet
       Seoul as capital
Korean alphabet: Hangul 1494
    three scholars
    ten vowels
    14 consonants
    phonetic, not idegraphic like Chinese
    but still adopt some Chinese characters

Japan invaded Korea in 1910
continued for 36 years until 1945 (end of WWII)
Lee was 7 at the time of liberation
    Japanese name is Masumara  (pine tree field)
after liberation, split north south
then N. Korea invaded
    Kim Il Sung believed reunification only by force
    US Secy State declared Korea outside of US sphere of interest
    Invasion got almost to Busan
    UN General Assembly decided to intervine
In six months, pushed North almost to border.
Then China get in to push South the UN troops.
There was the DMZ
    4 km wide
GNP S Korea: 12-13000 US$ per capita
Koreans do want to reunify

comparing crime in US and Japan
annual, # per 100,000
< 2
 aggravated assault
crime in Japan is mostly group crime;
group crime -- Yakuza
multiple groups of gangsters
    business cards, badges -- little pins
Tokagawa worked w/ Yakuza to eliminate petty crime
Yakuza gang crimes: extortion, prostitution, gambling, usury, ...
there are rules.
    keep civilians safe
tip of little finger chopped off
fancy dressers
little interaction between Yakuza and tourists

koban stations - around 30,000
    little kiosks - neighborhood police stations
    constant police presence
    like the old US beat cop
    police jobs
        find lost people, return lost pets
        give directions
       "benevolent nanny"
       fender bender, neighborhood quarrels
law breaker gets a sermon and is let go
    law breaker is expected to confess
        and apologize at great length
    if you confess, seldom taken to court
    if court, 99% guilty, but only 4% of guilty go to jail
       sentence probably shorter than US
       will be hard-time: prison, no TV or handball
    if not prison: back to neighborhood
          informal collection of parole officers
       you have shamed your neighborhood
       expected to apologize and repent
    some sent for treatment

    arrested all drug users and pushers in the 50's
    now very little drug problem
naikan therapy
    about 7 days
    isolation in small cubicle, about the size of a mattress
    5AM til 9PM. expected to meditate
    structured meditation
    therapist asks you to meditate on your self during a particular time
       and relations to all caregivers
       think about
          1 care you received
          2 what have you done to repay
          3 what troubles or worries have you caused those care givers
       therapist visit for 5 minutes every hour and a half
    subject typically breaks down and enters an almost suicidal state
    that is the point of the thearpy
    the therapist says
    "as undeserving and miserable a person as you are
    even so society has given you everything
    to take your own life would be xxx
    live as though dead
    devote yourself to the task of living
    with a lifetime of good works"
Using guilt to motivate people to live better lives.

Saturday, January 29
Fessler: it is a good day

Lee on relations between N and S Korea
    an east wind springs
waves get up a lovely swell
hoist the sail, hoist the sail
we leave north pacific

3 kindoms
gryo (?)
joseon  (also yi)
K war 1950 - 1953

Two Koreas remain for 60 years now
many N Koreans fleeing to China
    Chinese try to send them back
some flee to S Korea
    but they don't fit: don't understand capitalism, free society

relations between the two
focus on economy and nuclear power in the North

1. NK is in hardship
experts think N Korea could not be worse off than it is
    economy in tatters; raging inflation
    outside pressure against nuclear project
Hudson institute guy:   expect regime to implode within a year
K analysts disagree because
    there are well trained military personnel in the N
    education continues to preach self-reliance
5 yr economic plans again and again
fail because they control too much
    disrupt incentives of profit
okay until early 70's
    maybe better than S Korea
decline began in 1962

S Korea seized by coup in 1962
    Bak Jung Hee
preoccupied with improving economy
    pushed economy to more than 8%  annual growth

around the same time, NK declined in economy
NK started to adopt reform in 2002
    allowed private ownership and profits
bankers trained in international finances
negative side effects & eroded national philosophy
J newspaper said price of rice rose 550 times
    K analysts estimated only 220 x
NK significant changes
capitalist concept spreading
    computer game rooms getting popular
    hamburger restaurants growing
    many bars opening

2. nuclear problem
NK will continue atop GBush agenda
    particularly to stop nuclear program
in 1994 Jimmy Carter went to NK
    looking for breakthru
    but: NK pres Kim died
no progress
not negotiating
    were waiting for US election, but even now not negotiating
estimates are that NK has enough Plutonium to make "several" weapons

Fessler:  Eating in Japan
to order from window, tell waiter
sho-uindo no yo na
walk outside

drinking is institutionalized
rules for getting drunk - the way to do it properly
most common: sake - rice wine - about 15% alcohol
    beer is moving up
(BTW do not mix sake with western alcohol)
rule 1. never pour a drink for yourself
    pour for the other person
you hold your cup with two hands and the other pours into it
    spilling is bad manners
    concentration - we are in tume
take sip before putting sake sup down
lower person pours for higher person first
    but guest is top of the hierarchy
may offer your cup for the other to drink from
    then you may have more than one cup
    cups start wandering around the table
inevitably, some people wind up with lots of cups and others none
    there are spare cups in the middle of the table
toast: kampai - "dry cup"
an empty glass will always wind up being filled
    to stop drinking, leave your glass full
all will be forgiven, but not violence

Now for something completely different -
    short video of taiko drumming
apprenticed for years
    behave as a group instead of individuals
(wjh: Somehow I can better tolerate taiko drumming than Chinese opera
or the various tap dance shows I've seen. Perhaps it is the flute.)

Sunday, January 30
Good day. This is what sailing is like.
Moving on to our first country. The United States. (Titters). Stir the pot and up pops experts on Hawaii.

Carl Grindstaff:
Maholo. Aloha nui. Welcome to Hawaii.
"Maholo" - thank you
Flowers everywhere.
Hawaiians will greet you with flowers. (For $10, -wjh)
We will arrive at Aloha Towers.
A few blocks from China town.
There are lei stands.

Makahiki - big party time - about three months
Captain Cook arrived during this time
    around the time of the American revolution
    he was viewed as a god
Captain Cook came back.
    that god was not supposed to return
    so they killed him

whales come in the winter
    for calving
    go to Maui and go see the whales
    big industry
Another group of Europeans arrived: missionaries (from US)
    first in 1820

Europeans bring things
Hawaiian alphabet is 12 letters
    At peak, population 100,000
    At lowest point, native population was 80,000

    Kamehameha conquered all of Hawaii (w/ guns)
    Europeans convinced him to divide the land and have ownership
       Mahale time
       split between missionaries and Kamehameha
    land began to be productive
       sugar cane & pineapple

Last queen Lileokalani  - no children
    monarchy overthrown in 1893

Currently a social movement demanding "more hawaiian"
    not clear what this might mean
Brother "Iz" Isreal.  800 pounds when he died
    Makaa Sons of Niihau

Monday, February 7
for Faculty: get A/V requests to Sumner by 5.
for all: test is Wednesday morning; review session Tuesday night

back to theme: one world, many world views
you can help: Read global studies text on China and Hong Kong
can compare to Japan.
map of eastern China
China is an old civilization. Continuous for over 4000 years.
For a long time they were the best.
Large landmass protected in all directions.

Long before Greece and Roman empire, CHina was already an ancient civilization.
Names: Middle Kingdom. Celestial Empire(?)
Have never been interested in conquering or controlling other lands.

Will talk today about deep-seated, time worn beliefs that still permeate society.
What makes China different.
Animism, Buddhirm, Confucianism
important principle: Maintain harmony (see Japan: "wa")
Chinese way to harmony.
Spirtual connection to the cosmos:
    qi (chi)
A force flowing through everything in the universe.
Harmony means maintaining a free flow of the qi.
Do nothing to block the flow.
Be at one with larger forces.
Eg, Feng Sui - building decoration
All buildings, even the most modern, have design with qi in mind.
Accupuncture is similarly designed to preserve the flow of qi in the body.
Also people should live their lives so as to be in tune with the universe.
Live a life that does not block qi.

"Zhen" (schun) - shocking events due to pulsing energy.
There is a pulsing of energy in the cosmos.
Sometimes the energy breaks out staggering ways.
    Eg, 55 foot waves.
Philosophers sought ways to deal with zhen.
    - xxx
    - Control emotions and behavior
    - stay low and wait it out
Zhen is inevitable and impermanent.
Buddhism: meeting is the beginning of parting
lesson of Zhen: must expect the unexpected
    and look to oneself to stay in harmony
in parallel:
    Chinese notions of how to achieve social harmony
Chinese believe there are mutual responsibilities
    of those at top and bottom of hierarchy.
Top: must preserve and protect
Bottom: must obey.
Confucius believed the people at the top must be virtuous.
  he felt that a society run by laws is doomed to failure
    those at the top may do what they can get away with
    instead of what they should do

China has always had a hierarchical structure
upper has absolute authority of those below
    father is in charge of family
    in business, boss is superior
    in society, emporer is leader
no room for individualism

System will probably work
IF those at the top are indeed virtuous
BUT leaders have been concerned with maintaining their power

exam was a pathway to the top
but exam is in classical Chinese
    most don't know this
    100,000 characters
    at least 5000 needed to be literate

individualism is anti-social
Chinese conditioned to this system over millenia
rules strict
    no moving from village
    occupations inherited
    travel needed written permission
    arranged marriages
need to develop
    guan xi  (guan schi)
that is, personal connections with key people
still need connections
connection need to be cultivated
individuals develop web of social debts
    amass reservoir of favor

relationships in China are about loyalty more than love
fulfilling relationships are one way of maintaining face
per capita lawyers in China are .01 times that in US

China is at the collective end of the scale versus individualism
to improve esteem means improving the esteem of the group
In Japan a person belongs to multiple groups; family, school, business
In China, the primary group is the family.
A live-in daughter-in-law is NOT as important as blood daughter.

To know your place is hard.
Self reference is more confusing
age, gender, from mother or from father
different words for uncles on both side
there is a specific word for:
    oldest male son of my mothers youngest sister
thus referring to relatives always reinforces your relationship
    and position in hierarchy
in Japan, there may be situational changes in relationships
in China, a relationship always holds
family members include extended family and ancestors

"ancestor worship" is a misnomer
    it is more like reverence for ancestors
    even dead ancestors are dealt with as though present
important to keep ancestors placated
having descendants is important
    so someone will revere you
need male offspring to preserve family name

Someone who knows more about China than Fessler:
Prof. Ralph Crozier
   today: Cultural China - The Relevance of Deep History
    tomorrow: Revolutionary China (Mao's China) and the Irrelevance of Recent History?
26 official dynasties in Chinese history
but we'll key off Honolulu and Chinese New Year
    Chinese New Year is biggest celebration, is lunar
    (official day this year is Feb 9)
twelve year cycle of "zodiac"
Time is not something that goes strictly forward
    Time is cyclical

Take a yin-yang approach (w.r.t. Fessler)
so Crozier talk about similarities behind the differences
prop: Picture of ship--text reads: One sail, smooth following
small text: the fountain of wealth will broadly pour into your river
the hundred enterprises (everything) you undertake will all be successful
small banner : peace descending from above
    China was not primarily a martial culture
another banner: harmony qi - affable, harmonious -> you willget rich
    "affability breeds wealth"
    it is not a dog-eat-dog word
    this is a bit phony in present cutthroat environment
third:  "gung shi fat si"    (gung she fat sigh)
    literally: congratulations (and get rich)

So, how does new blend with the old cultural values
flourishing middle class
today 236,000 millionaires in China
    starting from 0 a quarter century ago
service areas have blossomed

Taiping rebellion (the last "traditional" rebellion) killed 15 million people
there have always been stresses between the farming communities and
    the educated and city folk
long ago
gov't discovered they needed merchants
gov't gave licenses
"anything you say about China is both true and false"
there are substitutes for family units; eg guilds or political groups
BUT China also has a long tradition of eccentricity
eg,    yung jo bao gui
    "the eight weirdos of yung jo"
Taoism or zen allow for personal growth
but you are specifically going outside the tradition
    and thus enforce the tradition by reference

group ideology
communism both reinforced and undermined family
    with the "work unit" (dong weigh)
they completely controlled your life; permission to marry or transfer

Luck symbol needs to be upside down.

Tuesday, February 8
Exam tomorrow. Room assignments alphabetical by last name.
Be on time. 0920. After 0930 you will not be allowed to take test.
There is no make-up exam.
Bring a #2 pencil.

Crozier:  "Revolutionary China: Irrelevant Now?"
Lets take a posthumous look at career of Mao Tse-Tung
He is in mauseleum in Tianamen Square. (Or maybe a wax figure.)
Pickling done by Russian method for Lenin.
But from Vietnam, who had done Ho Chi Minh.
But viets left out an ingredient. (apochraphal story)

Mao is still the "symbol of state"
    "the revolutionary past"
In the 90's, Mao Kitshch. Eg, cigarette lighter.
Mao statue during last years of his life
Seated figure in the mausoleum
Mao is now father of country, not revolutionary leader

factual content

Manchu Dynasty until 1911
    ("what happened to those pigtails?")
    originally conquerors from the north
1911 Republican Revolution (Sun Yat Sen)
    SYS educated in Hawaii
    pigtails chopped off
    American model of democracy
    failed in war-lord driven China
Nationalist Revolution (Chiang Kaishek)
    "old baldy" according to communists
    military seizure of power
    Nan Jing, capital in central south near mouth of Yangtze
    1930s Japanese invasion of China
    various failures
1949 Communist Revolution (Mao Zedong)
    "Chairman Mao" head of  Communist party
    kicked out foreigners, including missionaries
Other dimensions of revolution in China
    initial reaction to Western advances in late 19th Century
       we'll take the west, but keep the traditions and Confucianism, etc.
       failed to work
    later: syncratic - "take the best of east and west"
       they don't actually fit together
    wipe out the four olds: old culture, old customs, old thought, old professors
food, music, cultural values
nationalism and national pride running strong in China
    in 1949: the Chinese people have stood up
    now and got rich (well some)
China run by scholar-gentry
    educated in Chinese language
    land lords
eliminated the civil service examines
Communists implemented land reform.
    but then they soon collectivized the farms
rapid industrialization
transform human nature - a communist nation
1950's "Great leap forward"
    tripled food production on paper
       but 15-20 million died of starvation
1966 "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution"
    much violence by youth
    ten years
 Mao wanted communist country
but got backlash.
successor reversed it mostly:
    remarkably rapid economic growth
resurgence of Chinese national pride
    growing social and economic rifts
    large floating population
        not registered in cities, but work there
    crisis in values; loss of socialist identity and not much new identity

Yes, in some ways
    still a communist party
    representative of Chinese working class (but what is that)
    no longer class based; capitalists can join
    a big "gang" that rules China
what if combine communism with capitalism
    you get corruption
    gong schi
in the west, the opposition party takes over
    and starts with less corruption
in China there is no opposition
Chairman Mao: "Where there is repression, there will be resistance."
    We'll wait and see.

A Mao story:
    Mao ordered that sparrows be killed.
    For three days the people created a racket so sparrows would not land.
    They died of exhaustion, fell to the ground, and were eaten.

One family, one child policy.
Mao thought childen were good.
In 1970, average mother had 6 children.
By late 1970s, gov't realized they would exceed ability to feed.
1979 - one child policy
    not a law, just a policy
    communist party encouragement
     implementation up to local officials
       spotty enforcement; sometimes brutal
in general, need pemission to marry
    minimum age of 20
written permission to get pregnant
    woman gets birth permit and good prenatal care
    can then register the child that is born
    "encouraged" to sign an only-child certificate
       gives three additional months of paid leave after birth
every factory allowed a  yearly quota of babies
    bonus to all if quota met
unlicensed pregnancy
    encouraged to get abortion
       "for the good of the country"
    sterilized, fined, or house demolished
    twins, triplets
    first child died or had non-genetic defect that prevented working
    father and mother themselves both an only child
policy was a success
    population growth dramatically constrained
    now average is two children
    but, imbalance of males and females
       preference for male children
       female infanticide or sex-selective abortion
114 males per 100 females, average across China
    some places 140-100
massive social problems
    peasants riot, tear up birth records
women kidnapped from cities
inverted pyramid
    child has two parents, four grand parents, ...
    (used to be plenty of children, uninverted pyramid)
spolied children

in about half of china policy has relaxed
    in rural areas you can pay to get a second child
    many girls do not get registered at birth
communities now say that a daughter must take care of her parents
       as well as her husbands
they are talking about inheritance of property by daughters
in Northern China: experiment with other population controls
    eg, keep two children if spacd at least five years apart
    ratio 107 males to 100 f
    and birthrate less than elsewhere

Hong Kong - how it got to be the way it is
Qing dynasty in 1700s
    forbade foreigners
       no missionaries or merchants
to relieve pressure, they opened one city (Canton)
China had stuff Europeans wanted
    Europeans had nothing China wanted
       China wanted only silver
economic problems in Britain
    outflow of silver
    decided to sell opium to China
flow of silver reversed
    inflation in China
    1839-1841 China seized 20,000 cases of opium and burned
Opium war began
    British won. But all they wanted was trade
    Nan Jing treaty 1841
       Chinese agreed to open there border and accept missionaries
       agreed to treat foreigners as equals
       principle of extra-territoriality
          criminals answerable to their home country
       Britain also got a little island off the coast, in perpetuity
later British got Kowloon, indefinite lease
then needed more land: the New Territories
    lease of 99 years  - ended in 1997
agreement to give back all of Hong Kong
    as long as stays captialist for at least 50 years