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Global Studies Notes, 2
Fred Hansen, Winter, 2005
Notes, Part 1
Notes, Part 3
Notes, Part 4

  • These lectures were conducted during Semester at Sea, Winter, 2005, by Prof. Robert Fessler, Global Studies Coordinator. This section covers the period from from Hong Kong to Chennai, India.
  • Most of these notes were entered in real time during the lecture. Beware: I get things wrong.
  • Personal comments are usually enclosed in {...}

Hong Kong
map of Hong Kong

Friday, February 18
cap Fessler began today by announcing that the next exam will be the day before India.
For the exam, students must be able to identify the countries on a blank map of Africa.

Today: The East Asian world-view. Next Vietnam and Cambodia.

East Asia - Shared roots and culture

Religion - spread & modified
Vietnam has another version of Buddhism
VN has always been isolated by geography
    Human habitation started in the North of VN with ethnically Chinese people.
    roughly AD 1000-1600 people moved south along the South China Sea
    "vietnam" in Chinese means "people in the south"
    there were indigenous ethnic groups: chum, khmer
life was easier in the south than in China
    so the people became more outwardly oriented
    they were on the trade routes
    more entreprenurial
there arose two cultures in VN:
    North -traditional
    South - laid back and outwardly oriented

map of Vietnam

Dr. Penny Campbell - History of Vietnam
    (4 sections: classical, French, Nationalism, post-WWII )
1. Classical VN
immigration from China as early as 400 BCE
VN had three areas:
    Tonkin in the north (name means "Red River")
    Annam in the middle, (means "pacified south")
    Cochin-China in the South and Mekong Delta (name given by the French)
culture typified by water buffaloes, paddy rice, pictographic language
govenrment was on the model of the "Confucian emperor"
       a man of wisdom
       in harmony with a "cosmic plan"
    examination system
Gradual creation of a society based on that Chinese model
in Hue, Hanoi, etc. will see lots of Chinese architecture
    yin-yang roof  (columns of nested "U" tiles interleaved
                            with columns of nested inverted "U" tiles)
legal system based on that of the Chinese, but more lenient
    daughters could inherit and manage property
the main threat to VN for most of the last millenium was Chinese domination
    in 939 AD they achieved independence from China
The incoming confucianism supplanted an existing "Hindu-ized Buddhism"
The ruler was the "Deva Rajah" or "god king"
    a father figure to the country
    eg: Sihanouk of Cambodia

2. The Coming of the French
{From another source, I understand that the Pope allocated Indochina to the French. I don't think he asked the inhabitants, but after all, they weren't Catholic.}
French were Roman Catholic
religion and commerce were intermixed, not separate
French also got Myanmar (then called Burma) and Thailand (then called Siam)
French arrived in 17th century
French gov't then got involved in local VN politics
    were called on to settle disputes
    helped found the Nguyen dynasty
       beginning with Gia Longe in 1802
Finally codified the whole as "French Indochina"
    one colony: Cochin-China
       under direct French rule
    four protectorates: Annam, Tonkin, Cambodia, Laos
       under local rule with some French oversight
    various progress from 1860 to 1890
in the 1860's, emperor Tu Duc was defeated by the French
    he ceded the heart of Cochin-China to France
at that time, Siam was trying to control Cambodia/Laos
    expanding eastward
    King Norodom of Cambodia asked the French for help
    The British were trading with China by going up the Yangtze
    France wanted to open trade routes into China along the Melong River
          {just their luck} the river had too many rapids for trade}
in the 1870's, the British and French merchants in the far east got into "quarrels"
    the Chinese still held Tonkin
in the 1880's, France got Tonkin
    Laos then signed a "treaty of friendship" with the French
the "Indo-Chinese Union" was established in the 1890's
    there was a governor and a "Residente Superiour"
    {but which was who? and where?}

The French improved life and the infrastructure in Indochina.
            Mostly with the goal of more easily extracting wealth.
  • centralization: defense, communication, transportation, customs
    regions handled local affairs, health, education
  • finance
           colonies had to be self-supporting
           France imposed all sorts of taxes
           established more efficient collection of taxes
           gov't monopolies on opium, salt, alcohol
  • public works
           harbors, highways, bridges, telegraph, swamp drainage
           used conscripted labor
  • economic development
           French banks, F. mines, F. plantations (coffee, tea, rubber)
           locals were discouraged from creating businesses
  • created charming cities: Hanoi, Saigon

  • much production of rice, rubber
  • great improvement in public health:
    life span increased, infant mortality reduced
    led to overpopulation and decreased std of living
  • wealth became concentrated in few hands
  • Chinese began in-migration
    Cholon was largest Chinese community outside China

social philosophy
  • abolished slavery and cruel punishments
  • ostensible non-interference with religion 
    but missionaries were very active
  • education
    started with teaching French to a few 
    so they could have interpreters, tax collectors, a "service" class
  • worked toward universal education in early 20th century
    but only taught half a million by WWII
  • private schools did develop an upper class
    these were the foundations of nationalism
    (moral: don't educate people you want to subjugate)
  • universities in both Saigon and Hanoi

World events began to impact Indochina
        (& Africa & India {&everybody else, too})
    defeat of Russinas by the Japanese
       demonstrated to Asians that Asians could defeat Westerners
    Russian Revolution - communism
    Gandhi in India
    in WWI France used some VN soldiers to fight in Europe
       they were thus exposed to the wonders of the western world
       and to its martial capabilities
    Pan-African meeting was held in Paris
    the Paris Peace Conference {what peace?}
       Ho Chi Minh attended

3. Nationalism
after WWI
    various political movements in VN
    almost all had goal of ousting the French
    Ho Chi Minh's party wanted the same
       but also land reform and "economic justice"
    1937 Japanese attacked China from Manchuria
    1940 Japan invaded Indochina
       wanted rubber oil and rice as war resources
    Japan had a "friendship" treaty with Germany
       the Vichy gov't in Indochina welcomed the Japanese
Ho Chi Minh moved around
       used Dec'l of Indep in his VN declaration of indep from France
    Paris Peace Conference
    prison in China
    mountains of VN

4. Post WWII
HCM had inclusive policies {toward what??}
1945 HCM emerged from the mountains
       took over Hanoi and Tonkin
    in the south of VN, Japanese surrendered to the British
    British gave VN back to the French
    {first American death in VN: 1945}
1946 HCM returned to the mountains
1946-1953 saw the "First Indo-Chinese War"
by 1953 HCM's guerilla tactics succeeded (actually Gen. Giap)
    France needed to rebuild internally from WWII
    France was negotiating with HCM
    but then came the utter defeat of the French at Dien Bien Phu
        valley north of Hanoi
        French were surrounded by HCMs army
{French commander assured his troops that no one could mount cannon on the hills surrounding the fort. Giap assured his troops that they could. He was right.}  

Saturday, February 19
(Note: If you have no class at 10:45, please avoid elevators.)
(Note: Short faculty meeting after class.)

Campbell: Vietnam, Cont'd
Yesterday got through Dien Bien Phu. We now go on from there.

1954 Geneva meetings on Laos, Cambodia, VN
    VN "temporarily" divided
    agreements made (soon ignored)
    -- all foreigh troops to withdraw 
    -- no external arms providers
    -- no foreign military bases
    -- free trade and movement between N and S VN
    -- national election to reunify VN
also 1954: founding of SEATO - Southeast Asian Treaty Organization
    mutual defense
    US, Pakistan, Phillipines, ...
    S VN was a "protocol" country
       to be protected it attacked
Paris {??Geneva} accords accepted by N VN, Laos, Cambodia
S VN rejected the accords
    under leaders
        Bao Dai - playboy ex-king
        Diem - president
    refused trade w/ N VN
        this was silly since the two VNs are symbiotic
            N has resources and industry
            S has food, especially rice
    S VN relied on US for industrial goods
    refused elections
       (wisely so; the more populous N would have prevailed)
S VN became a totalitarian & authoritarian state
    50% of arable land in Mekong delta owned by 2.5% of people
    Diem Roman Catholic
        his brother was bishop
        intolerant of Buddhists
    Bao Dai returned to play in France
    Diem in charge
Diem dependent on US
    US paid for S VN military
    ditto 80% cost of gov't
    ditto ports, harbors, airports, ...
Buddhists dissented
    were ignored in US
    some monks burned themselves
       (In Hue you can see a blue car beyond a pagoda. Monk rode in it to go burn himself)
    US public did not understand
N VM also authoritarian under HCM
    nationalization of key sectors
       communication, mining, ...
    "mixed" economy (some planned, some capitalist)
    private ownership of small operations
    land redistributed to village ownership
    suppression of dissidents
    technical assistance from China, Russia
       (& thus N VN was a "client" of communist states)
war resumed in 1056
    progressive infiltration of N into S VN
    progressive dissaffection in S VN
by 1961 gov't had lost control of 80% of S VN
HCM established the National Liberation Front (NFL)
    {where? who?}
    platform of reforms
    work to convince people of wrongness of S VN regime
early 60s, Kennedy
    started the "Green Berets"
       to be a guerilla force
    started "strategic hamlets" policy in S VN
       relocate loyal villagers to secure places
       {so loyalty "rewarded" with disruption}
       very disruptive to the countryside
       read Frances Fitzgerald "Fire in the Lake"
             a man refuses to leave the home of his ancestors
 no luck
    everything failing due to corruption in Diem regime
by 1963 there were 15000 US "advisers" in S VN
    akin to the Peace Corps {claims Campbell}
    military personnel {says I}
       involved in training and managing S VN military units
    Kennedy assassinated
    Diem assassinated (w/ US encouragement)
 succession of generals ruled S VN
 {We often hear of general ruling a country. This is usually seen as a Bad Thing because they tend to be authoritarian. However, in some situations the mlitary are the ONLY group of organized people. Only they can communicate and coordinate policies. Only they can organize even the most mundane civic tasks like collecting the garbage. The other organized grouptends to be religious. But their record is not especially better than that of military governments.}
Lyndon Johnson saw a lack of success and his generals called for more US power
    Johnson escalated the war: sent more and more troops
{an illusory skirmish in the Tonkin Gulf was interpreted as N VN firing on a US vessel. So Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution giving Johnson all the slack he needed to dive whole-hog into VN.}
US gave eqp't and ground troops to S VN
    they conducted surrveillance and sabotage
    futile - a bridge destroyed in Hanoi was replaced in a single day

Why did the US get into S VN?  {Excellent question!}
    lots of theories
       domino theory
       alternative would be worse
       unite US populace behind an effort {hah!}
       no first-rate power could refuse to fight
    many US leaders of the time claim in their memoirs they had misgivings
1968 Jan 31: Tet offensive
    80,000 N VN soldiers attacked targets throughout S VN
    maybe half were killed
    but was a termendous vistory for N VN
       it demonstrated that a military victory for S VN was unlikely
    sharp escalation of protests in US
in the fall of 1968, Nixon was elected
       "I have a secret plan to end the war"
    Campbell actually admits voting for him on that basis
    she now regrets her choice; she is bitter
    Nixon, she thinks, dragged the war on for 4 more years
        so he could get re-elected
    she thinks he was cynical and calculated {what Nixon?!?! well, hardly ever}
    more than half the US deaths in 'Nam came after Nixon's first election
Nixon extended the war into Laos and Cambodia
    US worked for the overthrow of Sihanouk
        {because he would not let US attack inside Cambodia}
    paved the way for {the maniacal murderer} Pol Pot  
Peace accord reached in 1973
N VN simply moved in in 1975
many gov't officials and collaborators moved to US
    {and started manicure salons}
N VN regime undertook transformation of culture of S VN
    remove "bugeosois legacy"
    bars were closed
    removed prostitutes, beggars {there were no clients, anyway}
    no books, newspapers
    re-education of teachers and officials
    religious buildings were "repurposed"
economic transformation
    5 yr plans for agriculture and heavy industry
       (especially needed to recover from agent orange defoliation)
    nationalization and collectivization
country was rebuilt in 70's and 80's
    country has rapid, export-driven growth
    VN does have resources:
        food, fish, minerals, oil
        half of GDP is agriculture
    almost universal literacy
    long life expectancy
    lots of foreign investment
    60% of population is under 30
the 1973 agreement called for diplomatic relations
    did not happen until 1990's
good as things are, however, a visitor must remember
    that leadership is still military and the communist party

Fessler: Cambodia
Cambodia has yet another world-view
    from India
    let's follow history to see how Hinduism got to Cambodia
as recently as 4000BCE, Cambodia underwater
area is mostly flat; silt deposited by the Mekong
houses were often built on stilts
diet of fish and rice
about 1000BCE, trading settlements grew up
    Khmer among them
    waystations on India<->China routes
    ships brought Buddhism and Hinduism
gradually religions spread, especially Hinduism
{? 800 BCE}
Jayarvarman II made a series of conquests
    unified the settlements into a kingdom
the kingdom of Angkor
    long succession of Deva Rajahs ruled
hierarchical social structure
    station based on birth, not examination
ruling power descended from god Shiva
    Shiva lives on Mt. Meru {where is it?}
Jayarvarman built a temple symbolizing Mt. Meru
each succeeding deva rajah built a new temple
    same basic pattern
Jayarvarman {or somebody} built irrigation systems
Suyavarman II 1112-1152 CE
    worshipped Vishnu rather than Shiva
    expanded the Angkor empire
       Malaysia, Cochin-China
    built Angkor Wat
Jayarvarman VII
    Buddhist (unlike predecessors)
    built Buddhist temples and revised others
    Angkor Thom; Ta Prohm (now overgrown by jungle)
in 1400's  {? tourguide says 1443 for abandon Siem Reap}
    empire in decline
    irrigation silted up
    attack from E and W
    temples abandoned
    moved to Phnom Penh
weaker and weaker kings
in 1600's king agreed w/ VN
    ceded Cochin-China to VN (was "lower Cambodia")
1953 - independence for Cambodia
    Prince Sihanouk tried to remain neutral in VN war
    by 1965 he feared US wanted to supplant him
       so he sided ith N VN
       allowed VC to build bases in Cambodia
1970 Sihanouk visited Paris
    overthrown by Lon Nol (w/ US approval)
    Lon Nol gave US permission to bomb along VN border
Sihanouk supported a small revolutionary group
    called Khmer Rouge
    under Pol Pot
guerilla war 1970-1975
1975 Lon Nol fled the country

Khmer Rouge radically restructured Cambodia
    one flight to Biejing every other week
    no other outside communication
Pol Pot wanted a Maoist agrarian society
    most non-peasants were executed
then KR began infighting and executing each other
deaths - between two and three million
    20-33 % of population
outside world did nothing
    finally in 1978, VN invaded Cambodia
       in two weeks they drove the KR back into the jungle
guerilla war for 20 more years
more land mines in Cambodia than anywhere else in the world
       avoid getting off the travelled areas
Country is highly unstable
    government is factionalized
there is, for the moment, peace

Saturday, February 26
Fessler says traffic in Vietnam pales in comparison to India.
Starting now on India.

map of India

But first:


Because India has the 2nd largest population of Moslims.
And because we will be passing the largest population: Indonesia

Islam is the worlds newest and fastest growing major religion.

Started w/ Mohammed in Mecca, 610 CE
Revelations from Allah. Basis of Qu'ran.
20 years, most of middle east
40 years NAfrica, Spain
by 700 AD Islamic empire spanned from Spain to China and North to the Himalayas

Islam - means Peace, Surrender to the word of Allah
Moslim - follower of Islam
Qu'ran - holy book of Islam. Revelations from Allah to Mohammed
Hadith - another sacred work in Islam.  All works of Mohammed other than Qu'ran

Sharia - literally "the well worn path to the watering place," denotes Islamic law.
    established by interpreting Qu'ran
    interpretation needed because Qu'ran written in 610
    Catholicism is hierarchical
        Islam is not so.
    Hence Sharia varies between localities based on local scholarship.
Woman's dress: Qu'ran says "modestly"
    Taliban: very strict
    Egypt: scarf and long sleeves

Monotheistic religion - one God
    goal - a single human community united in following Qu'ran

Jihad - "holy war"
    "greater jihad" - the war between good and eveil within oneself
    "lesser jihad" - war in defense of Muslim community
Jihad can only be declared by learned scholars.
    And therefore locality specific.
    Muslims in that area must folow

five pillars of Islam - beliefs
Shahada - faith and belief in in Allah and in Mohammed as his final prophet
Salat - prayers five times a day, facing Mecca
    direct link from worshipper to Allah
Zakat - Charity, giving to the needy
Sawm - self purification through fasting
    during month of Ramadan -no food, drink, sex during day
Hadj - pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in lifetime
    if physically and financially capable

Isalm is guide for all of life
    Sharia covers everything. Examples
       Do not eat pork
       Do not drink alcohol
       Cannot earn interest  
       Blasphemy punishable by death
          insult either Allah or Mohammed
       Adultery puhishable by death: both man and woman
          evidence needed - pregnancy enough for woman
              for a man, evidence is four witnesses

    man may have multiple wives
    man must treat each wife equally
    woman must not have multiple husbands
    varies by country

    man says "I divorce you" three times (over three months)
    not while woman menstruating (early reaction to PMS)
    woman can get divorce by getting a judge to give her one

men outrrank women within family
    important to keep family
woman can hold important posts
    such as prime minister

    incredibly diverse
    young country (1947)
    very old culture (3000 BCE)
    both a modern and traditional society
       nuclear power
       most number of scientists
       internet and satellite dishes everywhere
       50% literacy
    35% poverty
    Calcutta    700,000 live in streets
    middle class similar to US
    10% incredibly wealthy

    324 distinct spoken languages
    no one language spoken by more than 40% of population
    18 official languages
       English is a common language, but not offiical
area 1/3 that of US
    unified, but diverse society

    85% hindu
    14% muslim
    2% christian, buddhism, sikhs ...
local areas may have other majorities
    Punjab: Sihks

source of divesirty
100 million years ago
    India attached to East Africa
    tectonic plate moved
28 million years ago, smash into Asia
    pushed up the Tibetan plateau by 3 miles (5 kn)
    raised the Himalayas
       they are still rising

geographic isolation for India
    mountains to the North, the sea all other sides
some passes
    eg Khyber Pass
difficult for people to move into India
prevent easy interaction with outside world

within the Indian subcontinent there are other barriers
N. India dominated by 3 rivers and therefore fertile

Indus - 2000 flows SW in Pakistan
       Sanskrit word for river is "Sindu"
       Persian pronounciation is "Indu"
       and they called the people on the other side "India"
       Greeks and Romans called it "Hindustan"
        locals called it Bharatha
    Indus joined by five others to make "Punjab"
          flows S and then E and joins Brahaputra
          thru Bangladesh
    worhippsed as a goddess
          where Umana river joins the Ganges
          third river there is the invisible Sarawati
       bathing there Mahacoom  (30 million in 2001)
          right time is once every 12 years
         most scared Hindu city
          oldest inhabited city in the world
       dying there means you can be released from reincarnation
       funeral pyres day and night all along the banks
Brahmaputra  -  "son of Brahma"
    (330 mill. gods and goddesses in Hindu)
    East South West
    Ganges and Brahmaputra make a big circle
       sacred area within

There are other rivers in the South, but they are sporadic
Most of India gets no rain.
Except for monsoons. Somewhere between June and November
Southern India depends on Monsoons./
Land heats faster than ocean.
    air heats and rises.
    brings in wet ocean air
    it rains
cyclical monsoons are part of the Hindu belief of reincarnation

patchwork of settlements
    becaue people settled where there was fertile land
    each isolated group developed their own
no movement ever swept across India
Hinduism absorbed local beliefs as it spread

Where did it start?
First major civilization in Indu valey
    3000 BCE to 1500 BCE
Harradan or Indus Valley civilization
cities up to 50000 people
brick buildings, all bricks same size
 gridded layout
alleys half the widths of roads
    highways twice the size of the roads
indoor plumbing
language and written works
believed to have been a matriarchical society
event of 1500 BCE: unknown.
    Indus Valley Civilization vanished
civilization spread over 1000 or more miles

after 1500 BCE, some people went South
Darvidians may be descendants of Indus Valley Civ
others spread across N India
small frming settlements

roughly 1500 BCE Aryans arrived through Khyber pass
    not an invasion, more like a meandering
    probably several migrations
conquered the farmers
    no written language
    spoken language was Sanskrit
the first mixing of belief systems
    the beginning of Hinduism

2nd Global Studies exam the day before arrival in India.
need to know African countries

Sunday, February 27
Becky Drury introduced the new captain. He was with Pearl Cruises for 7 years and is now working for Raddison cruises. Home in South of France. Wife in Ukraine studying
Captain Jeremy Kingston: Welcome back. "Name too long for a tee-shirt, so I'll try to keep the voyage smooth." 

Fessler: today Hinduism and the caste system
First civilization Indus Valley Civilization  3000 BCE - 1500 BCE
Aryans arrived through Khyber pass: pastoral warriors.
    they rode horses
    had chariots, wagons, herds of cattle
    quickly dominated northern India

Hinduism is a mixture of belief indigenous and Aryan beliefs

Aryans had animistic belief system: tree, sky, sun, ...
Can appeal to specific spirit for help in specific areas: health, battle, crop, ...
Make offerings and sacrifices.
    sacrifice involves spilling of blood
Suppose do ritual and fail to get result
    One explanation: failed to do ritual right
    Became obsessive
    rituals got larger
    community rituals with many sacrifices
    precise placement of altar
       early studies in astronomy
       early studies in anatomy
priest class arose
    keepers of the sacred knowledge - how to do rituals "right"

lasted for a millenium
no written language
so had to memorize instructions for huge rituals
long verses of poetry: order, intonation, ...
    10-20 thousand verses
generation after generation

Aryan  social structure
    many tribes of Aryans
    ea. w/ only chief ("Rajah")
    those related to rajah were in the ksatriya
          (see also Moses and his relatives Levites)
ksatriya - rulers and warriors
below are priests: brahmins
next: producers -- farmers, potters -- vaisya
next: non-aryan, local indigenous -- servants -- sudra

eventually became settled
land was fertile, no need to move
importance of brahmins and ksatriya swapped
now: brahmins, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra

verses became the four categories of "vedas"
each category a differnet group of Brahmins

    atman - "soul" subtle essence existing in body
    brahman - "power in the universe" "essence"
    three levels of  existence
          heavenish place where gods lived
believed the three levels of universe must be in harmony
order and predictability
to maintain harmony
    speak truth
    perform duties correctly
or else you threaten the harmony of the universe
dharma -ordering principle in the universe - harmony
need to follow your dharma to maintina order in universe

around 700 BCE, written language
    wrote down vedas

began to write also: sutras
    discusssion, threads
written by brahmins (the only literate people)

dharma sutra
    written discussion of proper behavior for your place in society
so brahmins became determiners of proper behavior

Laws of Manu (by Manu), a dharma sutra
detailed manual for correct moral behavior
gave a religious basis to the custom of putting people in classes
    existence was part of harmony of universe
    division stemmed back to creation

creation myth
    huge giant chopped into pieces
    head - brahmins
    arms - ksatriya
    legs - vaisha
    feet - sudras

classes called "varnas"
word "caste" is a much later Portugese word

Manu said further that there was a fifth group
    deallt with death or filth
       undertakers, tanners, buthcers, 
outside the caste system

Manu assigned specific social duties to a class
cannot marry outside varna
cannot accept food from caste below
Brahmin cannot be touched by and outcast

outcasts became known as untouchables
    had to live downwind
    wear bells to swignal approach
a heirarchy of purity

now back to local people and their beliefs
social structure according to occupation
    jati - (jah tee)
hereditary - born into occupation

aryans plugged the jati into the varnas

?stuck in caste
not quite true
    a jati can move relative to other jatis within a single varna
jati is extended kinship group
context for sociql interactions
expected to marry within jati
determine who you can eat with, color of house

In India, caste system is illegal
But you cannot legislate against age old behavior,
    especially that deescribe in a religious context
hundreds of millions in India do not believe in caste system
but much of India is very local
    majority of people follow caste system

untouchables have other names
    harijans (named by Gandhi) "God's children"
    dalits "the oppressed"

Hinduism is more the Manu, it is a living religion
30 million gods

themes of Hinduism study
    motivation for remaining in lowest classes?
    various sutras mentioned multiple lives
    you can reincarnate in higher or lower caste
    karma determines future caste
       karma is related to dharma
       if you follow your dharma,
          you accumulate good karma
       and vice versa
       good karma aids in health, fortune, ...
       good karma means you may move up in caste
    it is assumed all people have a long past history
    your best opportunity to improve next time around is your current caste
    dangerous to try to live a higher caste: you will fail and come out lower
    also no point in helping a lower caste person,
        it may damage there attempt to live up to dharma
    avoids middle class guilt

as time went on ...
Aryans having communal rituals
around 500 BCE
    sects opposed to sacrifices
Brahmins became concerned about population losses
Sutras began to consider alternatives to big ritual sacrifices
    Induce gods to visit earth and stay
    Artist create an image
       Brahmin might induce a god to inhabit that object
Individual worship arose
    puja -"prayer", but doable individually
different Hindus gravitate to different gods or godesses
brahmins threatened with loss of position
so brahmins began to say: maybe not the rituals
    maybe it was something having to do with Brahmins
    postulate that they had altered consciousness
    so they tried to see how to develop
Upanishads - "secret teachings"
    collective wisdom of priests
    intended for those with special abilities
    now saying gods powerless, but have power from theri brahaman
    now seen that people themselves could get brahaman within themselves
moksha -libertaion - no more rebirht
       nirvana - buddhist word for same thing
brahmins said that ordinary consciouness is confused
two selves
    jiva - self caught up in sensory world, physical, subject to illness, pain, ...
          separate from other people
          preoccupied with thoughts about "me", "I"
          pursues physical pleasures, wealth, material things
    atman - soul
          uninvolved, non-physical observing self
          not subject to pain, illness, ...
          all objects are created by senses
                and therefore illusory
the doctrine of maya - the world is an illusion
brahmins say people need training to recognize the two selves
       to get in touch with atman
must do discipline to get in toiuch
    meditation, yoga, ...
    focus attention on atman
    reach a state of detachment from material world
goal of yoga is to separate atman and jiva
    and shift to atman
    achieve moksha - liberation

upanishad describe four stages of life for upper caste men
    different dharma per stage
       1 student - study
       2 householder - married, children, career
       3 forest dweller - after birth of first grandson
       4 sanyasin - walk off and never look back. abandon possessions. cut all ties
             wandering beggar. begging bowl. one piece of clothing
             no concern for body; it is an illusion
             no desires, hopes, regrets, ...
             achieve moksha - no more reincarnation

Monday, February 28

Fessler: Introduce interport lecturer and students.

We have covered:
Hinduism and Caste System
context for present day India
selective history: root of what we will see

more history

Northern India at that time (~327 BCE)  a whole series of kingdoms. Not a country.

327 BCE Alexander the Great
    at the Khyber Pass
(ended with largest empire ever seen to that time)
swept through N. Pakistan
    huge battles with elephants
ready to cross the Indus
soldiers got tired and wanted to go home
fought South along the Indus and sailed across Arabian Sea
left a power vacuum
in moved Chandra Gupta
    built empire all across N. India
    began Mauryan Empire
    left to Gupta's son and grandson Asoka
Asoka  (ash-oh-ka)
       268-233 BCE
    great leader
    all acroos N. India
    as far South as present day Chennai
    first unified empire
about 8 years after assuming office
    100,000 enemies killed
    Asoka remorseful
       vowed to not fight
       converted to Buddhism
       declared Dharma to be the way of the empire
dharma in Buddhism is a little different
    not hierarchical, no position in castes
    dharma same for all
    your dharma is to behave in a mindful and compassionate way
Asoka made many changes
animal sacrifices forbidden
    meat eating discouraged
    vegetarianism encouraged
religious freedom
justice system
planted shade trees
bug wells
rest houses
also responsible for expanding Buddhism from small sect to major religion
    established monasteries
    encouraged spread across Asia: China, Thailand, Japan, ...
on Asoka's death the empire unravelled
    partly due to Hindu Brahmins wanting to preserve power

roots of tension between muslims and hindus
why broken into India and Pakistan
why dispute over Kashmir
skip forward to 700 AD
Islam to the west of khyber pass
Hindu to the east
pause in spread of Islam
Hindus learned about Islam
Small Muslim communities in the S India

Mahmud, a muslim, began a series of raids through the Khyber pass into N. India
    demolish Hindu temples
       (to get the gold and jewels)
    convert "infidels"
       or kill them if they wouldn't convert
after each raid, retreat back across the Khyber
1190 Prithviraj ruled kingdom around Dehli
    about half of the Punjab
    Mohammed of Ghor had the other half of the Punjab
       (boundary close to boundary India - Pakistan
Prithviraj suggested a truce
    Hindus celebrated
    Mohammed slaughtered 120,000 Hindus
Now Islamic forces worked their way across India
    looted and destroyed Hindu temples
    they stayed
    built Mosques on top of temples
    established Islamic Sultanates
    demanded conversion to Islam
1222 AD:  Gengis Khan and Monguls came from central Asia
       Monguls conquering China and Japan
    Moguls thru Khyber pass
    passed wave of Moslems ahead of them
    moslems stayed in N. India
    N. India became Islamic
    many Hindus converted
    some killed, other not

more about Islam
    "there is no god but Allah
        and Mohammed is his final prophet"
    earlier prophets
       Jesus, Moses, ...
       but earlier word contaminated by time and translation
       so Mohammed is the true word of god
so Islam is extremely accepting of Jews and Christians
    called "people of the book"
    allowed religious freedom
accepting of monotheistic religions
    as long as not a threat to Islam
       missionaries are one sort of threat
    Jizya (giz-yah) - tax paid to worship freely

back to N. India
Islam vis a vis Hinduism
    Hinduism has lots of gods and goddesses (330 mil.)
    but others argue that the gods are all aspects of one god
Hindus less modestly dressed
Hindu temples covered in sculptures
    some even depicting sex
Moslem mosques have no pictures
so some moslems horrified

Hindus can worship individually
Islam worships in community, 5 time a day

Hindus: hierarchy
Islam: equality

Hindus: pork but not beef
Islam: beef, but not pork

nonetheless, Islam and Hindu lived together for a long time in N. India
Hindus adopted more covering
Islamic mystics attracted some worshippers

and in S. India co-existence continued

--> early 1500s AD
Afghanistan ruled by Babur
    a descendant of Genghis Khan
    is a Muslim
Lodi ruled area around ---
Lodi wanted help to expand
Lodi 120,000 soldiewrs, 1500 elephants; poorly trained
Babur had 1/10 soldiers, but had trainiing and guns
Babur cirlced Delhi and awaited attack
Babur easliy won
marched across India to NE India
    Mughal Empire
    ruled for three centuries

Babur succeeded by son Humayun
Humayun shared power with brothers
    empire split
    Humayaun too busy with women and opium
son Akbar succeeded Humayun
    took control at age 13
    dyslexis, but brilliant soldier
    had been born in India
       so he did not see Hindus as barbarians, but as fellows
    repealed the Jizya
    celebrated Hindu festivals
    married a Hindu (daughter of a rajah)
    bigger empire than Babur
    learned from fathers mistakes
       did not share power
    abolished Islam as the state religion
    remained a Muslim, but tolerated other religions
    roads economy improved
    supported artists musicians. huge library

1605 - Akbar dying
    son Jahangir proclaimed himself the new emperor
    Akbar sent lieutenant, Jahangir killed lt.
    Jahangir took over
    scholar, not a fighter
    married a muslim (after killing her husband)
    wife made most of the decisions
        strengthened Moslem presence
          schemed to have her son take over
as Jahangir dying, sons squabbled
    Shah Jahan won out, killing the others
    dismisssed the Moslims his mother had put in place
    built new city on city of Delhi
    built Taj Mahal
       wife dies giving birth to 14th child
1657 Jahan died
    four sons squabbled again
    oldest was Sufi and governor of Punjab
       disliked by the others
    second son a shiite (?)
    third son a drunk
    aurangzeb, fourth son of Shah Jahan
       soldier and therefore acceptable
       imprisoned his father across the river from the Taj Mahal
ruled 1658-1707
Arangzeb captured oldest brother
    dragged thru streets of Delhi
    wrapped head, delivered to father
    2nd brother ran off to Myanamar
    3rd brother was tricked, imprisoned, executed
Arungzeb was strict Sunni Muslim
    prohibited repair of Hindu temples
    banned alcohol, music dance
    Hindu govt workers replaced with muslims
    temples replaced with mosques
    appointed "morality police"
    reimposed Jizya
protests and revolts increased
    religious co-existence started to unravel
    Mughul Empire continued for 150 years (til, say, 1850s)
    gradually unravelled
    religious hostility remained

Tuesday, March 1, 2005

Fessler Announcements:
--video at 6PM and 7 PM
    documentary on untouchables "Lesser Humans"
       born to clean outhouses
--second global studies day after tomorrow


Last major outside influence: Europeans
about the time of the Moghul empire

Europeans wanted the spices from India
eg, pepper worth more than its weight in gold
wanted sea route to India
    avoid the Middle Eastern middlemen
shortly after Columbus, (16th century)
    Vasco de Gama found the sea route to India (1498)
bargained for little pieces of land
    Goa (Portuguese)
    Pondicherry (French)
gold from Europe for spices from India

1600 - British wanted in on spice trade
    QE I granted charter to 25 business men in London
          monopoly between all trade between England and Britain
          pay annual fee to Britain
          British East India Company
BrEIndia Co got unwanted land
    Bombay, Calcutta, Madras
    set up trading posts
    spices, then textiles (mostly cotton)
hired local Indians as workers, guards, etc.
    Seepoys - security police
       -well- trained by British
       became a private company army
Portuguese tried to bring missionaries
       bad move
    so BEIC banned missionaries
BEIC kowtowed to local emperor, gave bribes as needed
were seeking "farman"
    "imperial directive" from the emporer
    to get sole access: eliminate other Europeans
    when Aranzed died successors were weak
       independent local officials arose fragmented into little kingdoms
BEIC would back a local official
        and back him with Seepoys
    give him a "company adviser"
    lots of puppet kingdoms controlled by BEIC
1716 - finally got farman
    emperor weak
    BEIC threatened to withdraw
    additional provision:
       BEIC had right to take action against infringement on edict
over the years BEIC gained control of increasing territory
    sometimes needed full fledged wars
       Seepoys (Indians) vs. other Indians
British gov't continually raised the cost of the BEIC monopoly
so BEIC branched out to trade with other countries
       eg, southeast Asia
BEIC people getting extraordinarily wealthy
    eg. Elijah Yale
1813 - Br. parliament ended BEIC charter
    other Br. merchants now allowed to compete
other companies brought missionaries
    few Hindus or Muslims converted to Christianity
missionaries set up schools
    many Indians were taught in English
the various Br companies put in mail, telegraph, railroad
    45000 miles of RR tracks
inadvertently provided infrastructure for India
    help to unify the country
Indian people still divided: religion, locality
could not unify
British just kept on rolling
    Sikhs, Gurhkas, Kashmir, ...
by 1850s abandoned puppetry
    just put in company officials as rulers
1857 - BEIC mistake
    new and more efficient rifles for Seepoys
       need greased cartridges
       had to bite off the end
    rumors arose {HOW?}
        Hindus: grease from cows
        Muslims: grease from pigs
    revolt - "The Mutiny"
    turned on the British
British gov't decided to come to the rescue of Brit citizens
    sent in British army
    year long bloody war
    British won
    price to companies:
1858 - British gov'f compnay assumed control of BEIC territories
    QV named empress
    British colony
    dismantled the DEIC

Prof. Penny Campbell - more on the British

--Indus Valley Civilization
    various cities up and down Indus valley
    excavations started in 1920s and are ongoing
Indus Valley Civilization
--route of Alexander the Great
    Tixila, Buddhist Monasteries
routes of Alexander the Great
-- Maryan empire -
    rise of Buddhism
    Buddha's home is in S. Nepal
Mauryan Empire
--Gupta Empire (300 AD)
    lasted 300 years
    Jonta caves, Buddhist retreats
    Allaura sculpture of several religions
Gupta Empire

{Historical maps of India}

(more maps on screen)
Spread of Islam into India
from 1190 - ~1500
    Muslim empires in N. India
          "Delhi Sultanates"
    there was even a women sultan
       (next one was Bhutto)
after conquest of aronxed, moghuls had greatest extent (1707)

(third map)
    1790, 1835, 1860
    1790 is almost two hundred years of BEIC
          mostly just a chunk in the northeast of India
    1835 BEIC has advanced everywhere
       especially up the Ganges River
             good place for growing Opium
       and along southern slopes of Himalayas
     1860 British Raj
          majority of India
    Princely States
    1858 BEIC gave Brtain only 60% of India
          40% divided among various princes
(no more maps)

Post-Mutiny Changes in India

"high-noon" of colonialism in India
--internal boundaries became fixed
    Br gov't said they would no longer grab territory
    previously "doctrine of lapse"
          death of prince without heir meant that territory went to Britain
    Br had treaties with 500 princes
       and Br sent "advisors"
       (Prince were just head of state)
--communication better - Suez, telegraph cables
    Sec'y of State for India in London
    Viceroy in India carried out direction from Sec'y State
-- army remodeled
Crimean war had siphoned off British soldiers from INdia
    (led to Mutiny)
    so Britain increased ratio of British
Martial classes Gurkas, Sikhs, Pathans (puh tahns)
    these were encouraged to join Br army in India
families encouraged to come from Britain
increase in number of civilian administrators
-- new attitude about India
Indians were distrusted by Brits
developed "cantonments"
    area where Brits lived
          Anglican Church, pub, cricket, ...
-- bureaucratic administration
    in 1833 civil servcie had become open for Indians
       but to take exam, had to go to London
       could only take exam once (age 22 or so)
    1850s universities established in India
    lowered age to take the exam
       1859 - 22  1866 - 19
    even in 1939 55% of Indian civil service were Brits
    still 40% at the time of independence
-- goals of gov't change in latter part of 19th century
    wanted profit
    in 1860s few Indians were asked for input
        councils were established
    first census in 1872
       Hindus, Muslims, Depressed classes
    as Brits enlarged participation by Indians
          based seats on quotas from each religion
          "communal basis" for participation
             became a curse
--export business
    indians became affected by word markets
--raw materials
    RRs built to get raw materials to ports
    proponents of RRs claimed they would encourage local industry
       instead they stifled local development
    population growth due to improved health
--economic development last part of 19th century
    Br needed India to help finance world-wide trade
    Br had a trade deficit w/ US
       due to protectionism
    Br could get trade surplusses in India
          to finance deficits with other parts of world
    pensions had to be paid: widows, retirees
    had to pay the interest on the RR bonds

    high point of Raj: 1858-1940
    Br looked at India as case of long "trusteeship"
    Br wanted to keep India ("the jewel in the crown" of empire)
    there was no "India"
       loyalties to family, jati, local community, ...
       no sense of country
creation of Indian National Congress
    founded in 1880s
    few members initially
       educated people from urban centers
    was loyal to Britain
          sang "God Save the Queen" at annual meeting
    among goals:
        effort to abolish poverty
        more Indians in civili service
          exams in India
        reduced military expenditure
        more spnding on social programs
     Lord Kurzon 1905 Calcuttta
          decided Bengal too large to administer
          "partition of Bengal"
          now border of Bangladesh
    partition angered Indians
        drive for swaraj - self rule
    founding of Muslim league in 1906
       felt that National Congress Party was too Hindu
    Thus two national parties, one Hindu & one Muslim

Wednesday, March 2, 2005

(picture of Ganhdi spinning cotton yarn)

(2nd exam tomorrow, bring a #2 pencil)
(Fessler will be on deck 6 all day)
Read the following chapters in Port-to-Port:
China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Cambodia, India
and these articles in Global Issues:
Articles 7, 12, 13, 19, 24, 25, 28, 31, 35, 37
e able to identify the capital, form of government, the head of state and the head of government for:    India, Kenya, Tanzania, S.Africa
The correct names for current leadership of India are:
Head of State:  President Abdul Kala
Head of Government:  Prime Minister Manmohan Singh

Prof. Annakutty Findeis
      {these notes incorporate the slides used in the talk
        my notes are in times-roman font}

Mahatma Gandhi
Contemporary Relevance of Mahatma Gandhi
Annakutty Findeis
for Semester at Sea Global Studies
Many Gandhis, but only one  MAHATMA GANDHI
Maha + atma = great + soul
not related to any other noted Gandhi
(cannot buy "mahatma" with money)
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (02.10.1869 – 30.01.1948)
­    Marriage 1883      (both 13 years old)
­    Studies in London 1888/91
    Journey to South Africa 1893
    1st African Experience 1893/99 Apartheid
            – Experience of being an outcast among the whites
    Representative for Indian interest
What sort of relations?
"The different races of mankind are like different branches of a tree – once we recognize the common parent stock from which we are sprung, we realize the basic unity of the human family, and there is no room left for enemies and unhealthy competition."
2nd African Experience 1902/15
Satyagraha Movement 1906
    Satya    = truth
    Agraha = firmness
Return to India 1915
Leading the struggle for Indian Independence (-1947)
Maxims for freedom movement
  • Satyagraha – firmness of being in the truth
  • Ahimsa – not to hurt – non-violence    (from Jainism)
  • Swaraj – self-governance
  • swadeshi – from one‘s own country,  indigenous
(admonished Indians to not use imports)
Removal of Untouchability 1
"Every Hindu should make common cause with Harijans and befriend them in their awful isolation."
Gandhian ashrams membership required vow for removal of untouchability
Removal of Untouchability 2
"Removal of untouchability means love for, and service of, the whole world, and thus merges into ahimsa. Removal of untouchability spells the breaking down of barriers between man and man, and between the various orders of Being."
Removal of untouchability 3
"We find such barriers erected everywhere in the world..."
"A person who believes in non-violence believes in a living God. He cannot accept defeat. Therefore, my advice is non-violence all the time, but non-violence of the brave,not of the coward."
Mahatma Gandhi
Father of the Nation
Martyr of Ahimsa 
Assassination 30th January 1948 on the prayer ground
By Nathuram Godse
In USA, MLK, Jr. was also a non-violent victim of violence
{See also movie, "Pay it Forward"}
Gandhi and America
Gandhi's reactions to letters from America
"I do want to think in terms of the whole world. My patriotism includes the good of mankind in general. Therefore my service of India includes the service of humanity." (17.9.1925)
  • Satyagraha       (love and firmness)
active resistance to establish justice and truth
satya = sat (being) + ya (??))
  • Ahimsa             (truth and non-violence)
  • Dharma
Gandhi‘s understanding of
  • religion and politics,
  • society and economy
Holistic Philosophy of LIFE
     Spirituality and experience
     Life as applied spirituality
truth is splendor of reality
    need to understand the fundamental laws of nature
is dharma
Holistic Philiosophy of life
Spiritual and experience
Life accepted as spirituality
Holistic Philosophy includes
    Religion, Politics, Society, Economy
    All life-forms and the environment
seeks dharma in field of politics
    do good on largest scale possibile
god is truth, but Gandhi says truth is God
non-dual relation between religion and politics
promoted equality and socialism
    cared for the weak
Sources of inspiration:
    Bhagavata-purana, Ramayana
    Jainism, Buddhism
    New Testament - Sermon on the Mount
    Christian Humanism
    Tolstoi, Ruskin
    Qur‘an, Islam     (from his childhood)
scriptures of all religions used in Gandhi ashram
Relevance of Gandhian Thoughts in the Context of Globalisation
    Unity of the world – Unity of humanity with respect for diversity
    Unity of thought and action
give respect to differences
plurality with equality
sarva dharma sama bhava
    all religions equal concern
Relevance of Gandhian Thoughts 2
    Equality – social, religious, cultural,
       national, international
    Non-hegemonial partnership
    Respect for nature
equality of cultures and nations
    without subjugation
international relations
man should live in harmony with nature 
    Simple Life-style – Ashram-life
    Respect and love for all forms of Life
truth is not the property of any particular religion
Satyagraha: Model of socio-political conflict managment

    Communicative method of negotiation
    Rational compromise through reasoning and dialogue
    Adoption of direct action techniques of satyagraha in case of failure
fasting, strikes,
    Acceptance of suffering
{aye, therein lies the rub; many are unwilling to suffer}
Gandhi‘s Vision of Civilization

"Civilization in the real sense of the term consists not in the multiplication but in the deliberate and voluntary reduction of wants. This alone promotes real happiness and contentment, and increases the capacity for service."
Invitation to read

M.K. Gandhi, An Autobiography or The Story of my experiment with Truth, Ahmedabad 1927
Louis Fischer, Mahatma Gandhi. His Life & Times, London 1951
Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. V volumes, Ahmedabad 1968

Gandhi also had a sense of humor. When asked what he thought of western civilization, Gandhi replied:  "I think it would be a good idea"
{Christianity is also a good idea,
though seldom tried by Christians.}

Prof. Penny Campbell
Partition map, 1947
    all 500+ princes were supposed to join one country or the other
    Hyderabad held out (wanted Pakistan)
Map of Kashmir
    Hindu ruler, Muslim population
     ruler joined India
     but Pakistani forces moved into part of Kashmir
    Inidan gov't wants to retain partly because of strategic location

1947 - 350 mil people
    80% illiterate, in remote villages
    enormous refuge problem
       Hindus from Pakistan
       Muslims to Pakistan
integration of 500 princeships was a problem
needed to expand civili service with Indians
    still 40% British
needed constitution
    solcial economic and political justice for all citizens
    liberty of belief
    no discrimination by caste
    fraternity among citizens
    secular, democratic republic

today: 3 areas: politics, economy, unity

1. Politics

National Congress Party dominated from the start
    Nehru ruled for 17 years, til 1964
Westmoreland System
    (british parliamentary model)
    ceremonial head of state
    prime minister
political parties chose symbols
    because of illiteracy
also established federal system
    national gov't: currency, defense, atomic energy
    state gov't: education, health, agriculture

1964 Shastri
1965 Indira Gandhi
    strong mind and fist
    ruled in imperial style
    17 years (minus 3 years)

Amritsar - Sikhs
    holy center
    fundamentalists for Punjab wanted autonomy
    early 84, sent army into golden temple in amritsar
    killed thousands
    Sikhs retaliated by assissinating her
       Sikh guards she insisted on keeping
    (Penny recalled seeing marks on pavement a year later)

PM Rajiv Gandhi 1985-1989
    Indira's son
now party fragmented and Rajiv unable to reassemble
1990-2004: weak coalition gov'ts
eg, BJP - Hindu nationalist party
2004 Congress party came back under Sonya Gandhi (Rajiv's wife)  
    she was Italian
    refused the PM-ship
    Mr Singh is in power

aiadmk - political party
leader corpulent former movie star
jayalalitha - large, colorful woman
    convicted of corruption thrice
    leader in Tamil Nadu

2. Economics
Nehru wanted a socialist state
    but no expropriation of wealth redistribution
    wanted social justice
    N believed in central planning
    succession of five year plans
       often called for increasing grain production
       sometimes emphasized steel and electricity production
however, mixed economy
    gov't control of only some industries
    Indira nationalized the banks
    tried to do land reform
          commonly circumvented
Rajiv replaced socialist talk w/ offer to rapidly modernize
    could bring in technology goods: TV, computers, ...
    India has emerged as a technologically advanced society

3. unity
National Congress party sought a secular society
communalism to be abolished
but there has been violent secularism
    eg, after Indira assassinated, riots throughout India
             Sikhs murdered
Yoda site has been an issue
    Hindu temple replaced with mosque

    reject notion that politics is a-religious
    BJP - right-wing Hindu nationalist thought
summary: for nearly 60 yrs
    Nat Cong has ruled for 70% of time
          mostly under Nehru's family
but still a democracy
moved from village culture to technology
there is still a great need for someone like Gandhi to come forward
    to lead to respect for others and others religions