our globe
Global Studies Notes, 3
Fred Hansen, Winter, 2005
Notes, Part 1
Notes, Part 2
Notes, Part 4

  • These lectures were conducted at Semester at Sea, Winter, 2005, by Prof. Robert Fessler, Global Studies Coordinator. This section covers the period from Chennai to Cape Town
  • Most of these notes were entered in real time during the lecture. Beware: I get things wrong.
  • Personal comments are usually enclosed in {...}

Thursday, March 10
cap Fessler arose two minutes late. Most students were in place, but the din was palpable. The music turned down and the quiet voice began, "Good morning, everyone."

Time to talk about larger issues, global issues. But first: Adema, the newest interport student.

Environment, Vic Fisher
Why we have the problems. Indeed, what are the problems? Later Yeomans to talk about what we can do.

Hominnids.  Lucy in Ouldavai Gorge. Footprints in the sand.  Walking upright.

300,000 yrs ago, homo sapiens.
    larger brain size
    earlier form, the neanderthal
30,000 yrs ago, modern human, cro magnon man homo sapiens sapiens
    arboreal environment
    ice ages in Europe
20,000 yrs ago demise of 60 large animal species
    probably due to hunting by cro magnon man
13,000 yrs ago: cultivation of grains.   Iran
then sedentary life styles
    food stored through time
    religious systems
    monetary system
       needed for specialization
    political structures: king, democracy, ...
resources in the immediate area of a city disappear,
    go farther afield
    lack of water
    lack of metals
agrarian lifestyle desensitizes humans to environment
    shelter, plumbing, heat
can modify natural systems
    tigris and euphrates come close
    about 2-3000 yrs ago
       discovered one higher than the other
          bring tigris waters to euphrates
          can do agriculture in the areaq between
       a lot of the digging by slaves
    "4000 yrs ago" because religions specify a creation of humans
    hereafter is better
    encourage large populations
       "go forth multiple"
       no contraceptive
capitalism, profit trumps environment
need resources because of increased population
    and increased trade

all factors make us less sensitive to environment

then come mechanization
    cedars of Lebanon cut down for ships
    trees of Europe cut to smelt metals

industrialization started late 1700s
    exploitation of fossil fuels
    more power per unti of fuel
    fewer people used in production
    exotic chemicals

rice farmer with three people can manage 2-3000 acres
    plow in a month
    airplane to seed and fertilize
    herbicides and insecticides

environment loses still more

environment problems of today have become globalized
enumerate problems
1. population
    growth 1.3%, 60 yr doubling rate
2. soil degradation
    depleted nutrients in soil
          (they go into grains and seeds, the parts we take away)
    wheat nutrients from Kansas soil
            end up in sewers of New York
    using fertilizers
       US dependent on other nations
3. deforestation
       soil generation 6cm per century
       but US using nutrients at 18 cm per century
    India has 7% decline in productivity every decade
    irrigation has increased salinity of soils
          salts from fresh water
    eg. more salts in Tigris, so the soil salted up and the empire disappeared
4. ground water mining and contamination
    water percollates 1-36 inches per day
    in some places we are removing thousand year old water
{Prof Fisher added later: That is to say: water enters a particular aquifer in Colorado and trickles downhill toward the Mississippi. Hundreds of years later it is pumped out in Iowa.  If pollution enters the auifer in 2005, Iowa may not know its peril until 2605. And at that time, the whole aquifer may be polluted. There is certainly precedent. At the time of Shah Jahan, the river at Agra had beautiful clear--and potable--water.}
    mining water so fast that recharge lags
       Modesto Valley
             continuous drop in water table
             land has subsided 21 feet

land subsidence in California
each contour line is 4 feet more subsided than the surroundings  

    similarly oil removed from Gulf Coast has lowered coastland
          ocean has intruded onto land by 6 miles
    salt water intrusion
          saw in S. India
          pumped water is on top of salt
    quality of water is declining
       eg, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides
 5. river modification: dams, irrigation
       less volume to mouth
       changes the environment
       was brackish, but chemistry changes
       organisms in salt marshes are sensitive to salt
    70% of commercial fish have nurseries in salt marshes
coastal deteriation around US
much of the US coastline is in poor repair}

    deltas exist from natural forces
       the precise ratio of sediment determines whether
             the delta advances or recedes
       dams upriver start the demise of delta
          Nile delta has retreated seven miles
             loss of agricultural land
       the delta of the Yangtze will start to disappear (from 3 Gorges dam)
6. depletion of fisheries
    100-150 mil tons fish per year sustainable
    now 30% of fish stocks depelted and 50% at limit of sustainable
    peak year of fishing was 1980
        {emphasis mine. we are on the down slope;
         we are getting FEWER fish each year}

      Grand Banks is closed; may never come back
      there were plentiful sardines in California
            Montery Bay sported numerous processing plants
            now no sardines
       whale population depleted
          treaty was signed
             loop hole: whales for research
                Japan takes many for "research"
thousands of whales caught.by year; 5 functionally extinct species
whales caught per year, in thousands; these five species are nearly extinct
(the catch was low in the early 1940's because people were busy killing people)}

7. extinction of organisms
       "the final act for diversity"
8. global warning
       CO2 and other green house gasses increasing
    Welsh miners used to carry a canary in cage into the mine
          sensitive to methane
          when canary lies on bottom of cage, the coal miners left the mine, quickly
    we are the miners and species are the canary

energy usage in the US has been increasing much faster than population

    energy use in quadrillion BTU
    energy use in quadrillion BTU; note the exponential increases
    note coal's decline as oil took over

the US uses more energy than the next three countries put together
    one quarter of all energy is used in the US
energy usage by country, 1998
energy usage in quadrillions of BTU
note that China's population is four times that of the US

although our usage is increasing, our production is falling
oil sources and use in millions of barrels
oil sources and use in millions of barrels

the US is increasingly dependent on oil from not-particularly-friendly places
Saudi Arabia and other middle eastern countries have 67% of the reserves
reserves and usage of oil

How do we make more oil? My interpretation of some remarks by Fisher is this:
  1. find a shallow sea near the equator
  2. grow lots of marine life for a million years
       (need enough to make commercial quantities of oil)
  3. watch dying marine life sink to the bottom
  4. use plate tectonics to bury the carcasses
       this takes (say) three million years
  5. apply pressure to the former life
       for another couple of million years
the Carribean is a place where oil might start
but, waddaya-know, chemical runoffs into rivers
    are  creating an enormous dead zone in the Carribean
    no sea life lives, so none falls to the bottom
dead zone in the carribean

My conclusion: We are burning up your heritage at a furious rate. Just one more way my generation has screwed yours and your children. No wonder our birth rates are down; we are ashamed.

Transcending Global Environment Problems: What are the Solutions?
Buddha refused novacaine: to "transcend dental medication"

Mentally US is in a US box
but physically in a global box

slide: boat going around the world

use a ship analogy
can put too may people
    ship sinks

Bill Mckibben:  (as read by Kenn)
This home of ours
    each day less complex and more violent
 planet means less than it used to
    globe has come unbalanced
    mostly us now

we have solutions, but we are not reacting to the problems
"carrying capacity"
    number of organisms an area can support
    not a fixed number
       depends on weather, environment
    planet has a carrying capacity
not just population numbers
    also the footprint on the planet
    consumption of resources (energy, materials,...)
          per person in a given area
    compare the footprint of an American versus and Indian (say)
population is a key problem,
but footprint is also a major factor
India may have less of a footprint than US
biodiversity is at risk (another for Vic's list)
1. control population and also control footprint
    disease of affluenza
    forgetting equality, justice, equitable division of resources
(assume that each of us can make a contribution)
example: The Watercone
    eg Coom river water
                (a dead river in India)
    water evaporates from tray, slides down cone, collects in trough
 affect of poverty on children
    180 mil children undernourished
    3 bil people malnourished (about half of world)
          not getting needed nutrients
          cannot make certain proteins
 "green revolution"
            coordinated effort to make new grains
    agriculture contolled by multinational corporations
          most profitable is aerial spraying
 ocean pollution comes from the land
       there is a dead zone at mouth of Miississippi
       7000 sq km
       nothing growing
    so: watch what we put on the land
 Challenge: Increase agricultural production without polluting water
    example rice
          pesticide, herbicide, fertilizer, machinery
          all coming from oil
    missed the duck-rice farmer in Japan
       Takao - The Power of Duck
        ducks for bugs
        Azolla for nitrogen fixing
        able to put fish in the rice paddies
    we can get our environmental ducks in a row
2. make agriculture sustainable  
    biological control
       insects -  praying mantis, beetles
       birds - chicken geese
    soil solutions
       slopes are bad 
             5%vs 1%:  3x water runoff, 8x soil loss
    must protect watershed
       Gatz mountains
       water wars between the Indian states
    wetlands are important
          they use water and provide fisheries hatcheries, and other benefits
        contour plowing
       strip farming and ground covers
          have some forest on the tops of mountains
    resources -> industry <-> workers -> wastes

    eg paper companies
          deep water wells (drinking quality)
          out to river
       linear system, not closed loop
       not logical in the face of environmental limits
3. industries must close the loop
    reduce, recover & reuse, recycle
    ex carpets: 3.5 bil tons of carpet go to US landfills / yr
ex: take an hour shower since neighbor might

fuelwood crisis
    85% harvested in develping countries
    by 2025 demand will double while supply remains constant

4. solar energy
    10,000 x amount of currently used commercial energy

 methane problem - produced by anaerobic decomposition
    burning methane could help
ultimately solutions are political
    Vote with an informed mind

hard example: pro-life
    what policies would you push for
       living wage
       better health care
if pro-birth, what policies

{ Rampant resource usage in the US is in service to arms sales.
    Shortages will lead to war, war increases arms sales.
    The arms industry is a strong supporter of candidates
       who pooh-pooh environmental issues.
    I do NOT believe that this is conscious behavior by most
    people in the arms industries or most candidates. }

Fisher: Kyoto accords
Rio summit 1992
Kyoto: cut emissions 5% below 1992 level by 2008
    ratified Feb 2005
    US and Australia refued to assign
          US is largest emitter
    Brazil, India, and China are exempt {emphasis mine}
          but China is matching US in usage
          and India is growing rapidly
"we're well on our way to trying to control our emissions"
{actually, I think, we're well on our way
        to keeping many lawyers happily employed}

Friday, March 11

Fessler: there will be daily Global Studies study sessions
    1530, deck 5 dining room

Carl Grindstaff, Population Growth
    population growth per era
    annual gowth rates ranging from .1%  in 1650 to 1.3 % today
        years to double from 700 to 54    (was 2% and 35 yrs in 1970)
here we are going from Asia to Africa
the essence of who we are has changed
keep in perspective
    how did all this come about  {what is this}
major human accomplishment:
    tremendous decline in mortaility
    goes back 300 yrs and took off in 20th century
study of old england    3% lived to 60  natal deaths 300/1000
       life expectancy around 30
now about 85% live to 60
life expectancy in N Am fast approaching 80
natal deaths  8/1000

the other side of decreasing mortality is increasing population

    Increase in pop is most revolutionary event of our time
B. Russell
    most important of western values is habit of low birth rate
       if this can be spread so can the rest of the good of western society can be spread
refer to book "History Begins at Sumar"

10,000 BCE
    world pop < 1 mil
0 AD  200 mil
1000 AD fewer than 200 mil
1830 : 1 bil people in world
~1930 : 2 bil people
~1965 : 3 bil
then an additional bil per decade
Oct 12, 1999: 6 bil   (UN est.)
now 6.5 bil
in another 50 yrs: 9 bil

14th cent  england went from 4 mil to 2 mil  -- plague
various issues like disease dominated population until very recent past

now: 130 mil born per year
    50 mil die per year
thus adding 80 mil / yr
    almost 1 per second
around vietnam war, 20%
70 divided by percent gives doubling time

fig 1, the demographic transition model
stability has been the history of  population
start w/ high birth and death rates
    deaths then lag births for a while
    then both rates are low
how many grandparents w/ >= 10 kids  about 10% of students
how many of you plan to have 10 kids, maybe one

the transition model starts 1650
    and transitions to equality now for western world
as industrialization, things that reduce mortality
    salt, soap, fresh water, food storage
    disease control through cleanliness
    public health advances
    clothing, cotton is better than wool
       invention of cotton gin
    germ theories
hogher life expect than US: Japan Norway, Denmark

but another component: fertility
    women still having lots of babies
over hundreds of yrs:
    the "props" for high fertility get eroded

historically "flow of wealth" from child to parent
the past is a foreign country

90% of pop in 1900 did not finish high school
:modernization: begins to happen
conflict with high fertility
       birthrate declines

{"fertility" is really not the right term}
Italy 1.2 children
Japan 1.2
Canada 1.6
US 2.0 (largest birthrate in industrialized countries)

education is the most critical
secularization  {?}
changing role of women
    crucial change
    changes entire org of society
          especially around child rearing
    changing role of men
          to just be one instead of power

developing world is in the middle of the transition diagram
    they can import fertility controls

Grindstaff: "21st century will be the century of women"
if women are not full partners, we run risk of not surviving
half of people in western universities are women

summary: new population balance
    low death rates, low birthrates,
    increasingly elderly population

Susan Hansen, Gender & Power
                        slides in sans serif font: notes are indented
1. Gender & Power
    One of the Multiple World Views
interested in ways values are affectred by power
esp. in women's access to power

2. Sex vs. Gender
Sex is biological
   Genes, hormones, external genitalia
Gender is learned behavior
    Both socialization and enculturation
    Norms for acting male or female in a specific social setting
Varies across culture and over time
went to Karolla in India
    almost universal literacy
    lowest infant mortality
    no F infanticide; no dowery deaths

3. Gender and Power
Enforced by sanctions
    Shaming, ostracism, teasing, violence
Defined by laws
    Property, inheritance, control of reproduction,
sexual assault, marriage and divorce
Upheld by State Power
    Elected officials, police, courts
in Iran roaming religious police would arrest women not entirely in black

Definitions of Politics
Who gets what when and how (HaroldLaswell)
The authoritative allocation of values (Max Weber)

India: debate over role of religion
    Gandhi argued for freedom of religion
US 2004 election: moral values were cited by many voters

4. Patriarchy
A social system that enforces male dominance
Applies to specific social sectors:
    the economy, politics, religion, family, law
Often justified by
    religious values, history, cultural traditions, or biology
"God has ordained men dominate women"

5. Feminism
Challenge to patriarchal structures and ideology
Critique of male/female inequalities
Commitment to action and social change
Varied goals in different times, places
International, not just USA or Europe

roles should be of equal worth
not content to accept patriarchy
feminists are optimists:
    believe social change is possible
there are moslem feminists
    women activists in India
    women working for change in Africa
not on list:
    angry lesbians with hairy legs

6. Who is a Feminist?
Anyone committed to gender equity, ending patriarchy
        Men can be feminists, too!
Many women reject feminism:
    Benefit from patriarchy
    Links to men in power
Accept patriarchal religious values
Fear negative media images
men have gender, too
male roles may be restricting
in Indian traffic, no male driver will ever let a female get ahead
Romans: women should remain silent in church
media images
    w fear they may not be liked or married

7. Historical Sources of Feminism
Education for women
Advanced industrial societies
Communism, socialism
Global economics and communication
Democratic values

top priority for communism is other than w.
    but have advanced w issues
tv and movies have shown enabled w
Afghani w voting

8. Backlash: Resistance to Feminism
Challenge to existing (male) power and privilege
Religious opposition to changes in women’s role
Fear of competition from women for
        jobs, education, or public office
Concern with traditional family structures
rush limbaugh feels challenged by feminazis
    they challenge his authority
religion fears threat to patriarchy
India: debate 30% of seats for women?
    men with seats are not thrilled
S told that her position in grad school
    would mean a man did not get an exemption from Vietnam war

9. Examples of Feminist Goals
Access to education for women, at all levels
Better health care for women, children
Control of reproduction by women
Equal pay for equal work
Access to professions:  law, medicine, etc.
Equal political roles as citizens, officials
End violence against women
even in US women earn 75% as much as equal male
    not one occupation where women earn more than men
10-15% on Gallup say they will not vote for women

10. Examples of International Feminism
    Oppose dowry deaths. 
    Adopt uniform legal code. 
    Gameen Bank.
    End genital cutting. 
    Reforestation and agricultural projects to assist women.
South Africa: 
    Combat AIDS.
    Improve township health and sanitation. 
    Property laws.
Thailand, Philippines:
    Combat sex tourism, AIDS, child prostitution
in India, some laws relegated to religions
Kenyan (Pitt grad) won Nobel Peace Prize for work on reforestation
Bush admin has made combatting sex tourism a priority

Can Cultural Values be Changed?
Yes (but it can be very difficult...)
Examples of changes in gender norms:
    Sati in India
    Genital cutting in Kenya
    Domestic violence policy in USA
    SAS faculty
 Requires ideas, organization, and power
no media coverage of Sati
    so we say it has died out
    {but how do we know if there is no coverage??}
rule of thumb:   English law
    can beat wife with a stick no larger than thumb
early 20th century temperance tried to reduce beatings
police training
anger management sentence for spousal violence
up to 1990s, SAS faculty largely male
    S is only third female academic dean in 86 voyages

envision a different world before you can move there
conduct typical organizing activities
need access to power

feminism provides an alternate perspective
closely linked to power, political dominace, and role of women

Saturday, March 12
    -- Global studies study group 3:15 deck 5 dining room: "the big crunch" global studies issue book
    -- no class tomorrow

Alphabet Soup:
Making Sense of International Organizations
        Andrew NarwoldSpring ‘05
Try to give structure in how international organizations relate

Types of International Organizations
Sports (IOC, FIFA, ITTF, …)
Military/Strategic (NATO, SEATO, Eastern Bloc, …)
International Trade (WTO, GATT, NAFTA, CARICOM, MERCOSUR, …)
International Development/Aid (World Bank, USAID, WHO, …)

International Trade
$6.3 trillion in 2000
40 times greater today than in 1965
Asian share over the same period 90 times greater
80% goods, 20% services
Most goods agricultural, raw materials, semi-manufactured goods or capital goods

A system of institutions, laws and regulations designed to limit international trade
The goal of a mercantilist system is to encourage exports and discourage imports
We are visiting many of the ports and areas that were important in the mercantilist days.
Adam Smith, inter alia, pointed out the fallacy of inequitable trade.

Barriers to Trade
Tariffs (taxes on imported goods)
Quotas (restrictions on the quantity of imported goods)
Subsidies (payments to the producer of goods for export)
Non-tariff activities (health and safety standards, quality requirements, …)

Rationale for tariffs
    a) raise revenue for the government
    b) protect domestic industries
        through raising prices of imported goods. 
Rationale different for developing and developed countries.

in developing countries: tariffs are a revenue source
in developed countries: tariffs protect local manufacturing

Gains from Trade and Comparative Advantage
--A country is said to have a comparative advantage in the production of a good, if the relative price of that good is cheaper in that country.
--Countries will benefit from international trade and will produce those goods in which they have a comparative advantage. 

Comparative advantage can arise from:
Differences in resource endowments (labor, capital, specialized natural resources, …)
Differences in productivity of resources
Differences in endowments and intensities of skilled and unskilled workers
Similarity in preferences
Differences in product life cycle
    resources: diamonds in S. Africa, oil in Mideast, ...
    diff. productivity and skills
       India largest milk producer
       but 1000 x manpower over that in US
    similarity in preferences
        consider trade between Germany and US
            similar cars, but some people like cars from other coutntries
       trade means more choices
    diff. in product life cycle
       initial production is near the R&D
       later on technology is dispersed

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Signed in 1947 by 23 original members representing 1/5 world trade
First several “rounds” of negotiations aimed at reducing tariffs
Later rounds included intellectual property rights and non-tariff barriers
Uruguay Round (1986 – 1994) resulted in the World Trade Organization (WTO)

World Trade Organization
Created January 1, 1995
First standing organization devoted to world trade
Membership currently consists of 148 countries
        representing 97% of world trade

Each member has equal standing
Currently working on the Doha (Qatar) round
       dealing primarily with agriculture and services

Doha goals arose because originally US had retained agricultural trade restrictions, to the detriment of devloping nations

Regional Trade Pacts
NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement
        Canada, The United States, and Mexico

CARICOM – Caribbean countries
MERCOSUR – South American countries
The bulk of trade is between neighboring countries

Gains/Losses from International Trade
Most economists would agree that the net gains from trade far exceed the losses.  The question may then become how do the “gainers” compensate the “losers” for allowing international trade to proceed.
In the US, both political parties had presidential candidates favoring trade restrictions. This did not attract voters and these guys were not put forward.

International trade and the balance of payments
Closely tied to the issue of international trade are the issues of balance of payments and exchange rates
The balance of payments records a country’s trade in goods, services and financial assets
      US trade deficit of $600 bil/yr  {$55 bil/mo}
            so overseas people are buying our assets
             not significant for a large country
       can be sig. for small country

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Created at the Bretton Woods Conference
        July 1944 in New Hampshire

Headquartered in Washington, D.C
184 countries represented
Designed to
    promote international monetary cooperation
    promote exchange rate stability
    facilitate multi-lateral system of payments

Provides loans to finance trade deficits in poorest developing countries

Tools of the IMF
- Surveillance
- Technical Assistance
- Lending
Recent interventions by the IMF
- Restructure debt of developing countries, 1980’s
- Mexican Peso devaluation, 1994 – 1995
- Asian Monetary Crisis, 1997 - 1998

International Aid and Development
The World Bank was created
    at the Bretton Woods Conference, July 1944

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
    1st loan, $250 million to France in 1947

Originally focused attention on natural disasters,        
        humanitarian emergencies, post-conflict rehabilitation

By 1960’s had shifted  to poverty reduction
    1919 - end WWI - reparations on defeated countries
       led to financial difficulty in Germany
       & thus contributed to WWII
    1944 - aimed to rebuild the destroyed countries
     originally helped Europe
    by 1960s, had shifted to less dev. countries
        approach similar to Europe
        usually inappropriate;  series of boondoggles
    now more grass roots oriented

The World Bank
Same constituency as the IMF (184 countries)
Member countries are shareholders
    in proportion to the size of their economy
    (U.S. – 16.4%, Japan – 7.9%, Germany – 4.8%, …)

Provides loans, policy advice and technical assistance
Currently incorporating
            more sustainability and environmental concerns

U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
The Economic Cooperation Act of 1947 (The Marshall Plan)
Mutual Security Act of 1951
Separation of military and non-military assistance in 1961
USAID provides funds to other countries in order to
    “advance the political and economic interests of the US”

Other Sources of Development
See Professor Lang
   next lecture

Prof James Lang:
    avg grade in room 5 was 40.  that's a lie
three themes:
get into bedrooms
think small in a big way
remake the way we make things
most basic question:
       where do babies come from
       not made at the macro level
       made in the bedrooms all over the world
       if you want to have an impact you have to get into the bedroom
       free train will not get you into bedroom
       building a bullet train will not ...
       building a school actually may help
    to get into bedrooms, have to solve problems people can see

consider Bangladesh and Chennai

micro lending by Grameen Bank (Bangladesh)
    interaction between bank and individual all over
    loans must be repaid, on time, and with interest
       experience says interest is important
          pride in borrower
    target group: poorest villages
       landless and illiterate
    no secrecy: open meetings
       everyone around knows how big your loan is
       use pressure of village to motivate repayment
    each group of five is self-supervising
    everyone in a group is responsible
            for every loan taken out by any member
    group -self selection, but not family
    5% set aside for emergencies
       much better than the money lenders
    weekly repayment (used to be daily)
    use: supplies, equipment for small businesses
    over 2 mil loans outstanding
    every borrower has to attend a weekly meeting
     office is 100 sq foot shop - bank is very local
    has started to finance home construction
       house designed - won award
        2 stories; first is 1 meter above crowd
             repay 40 takas/week
    finance purchase of cows
          India has 100 mil cow owners
       buy cow for 2000 takas
            can sell milk for 40 takas / day
            pay loan at 40 takas / week
    bank gets into bedroom
        wife has income
        changes dynamic of household income
        women tend to have a more family oriented spending pattern
    Carola - successful in India - matrilineal
        high litearcy, zero pop. growth, children don't die
2nd basic observation on Grameen Bank
    think small in a big way - power of cow

in US, we don't think about agriculture
but more land impacted by agriculture than any other activity
in Asia, the vast majority earn living in agriculture
70% of India lives in vilages (630 thou villages)
work in agri. can get into bedrooms

Swamanathan Foundation (about half hour from Chennai)
    (swamanathan was director of int'l rice foundation: green revolution)
       rice production came to exceed population growth
       90 days maturity instead of 180 days
       but: needs lots of nitrogen,  fertilizer weakens soil
    Swamanathan found. supports infinitely sustainable agriculture

Mangrove trees along coast
    tsunami did much less damage in coasts with Mangrove swamps
    mangrove creates environment for fishery and then birds
    forest collects sediment and builds soil
    found species that repel insects
    (we use DEET and other chemicals
       will villagers read the safety instructions?
       chemicals very dangerous)
    neem is a natural repellent
       stronger repellent in mangrove
    preserving mangrove biodiversity
    also preserving biodiversity in medicinal plants
       otherwise use of natural medicines can lead to extinction

india: 70 mil met tons of rice in storage
projects to enable people to get money to afford food
training in various agriculture
    mushroom production (ues rice straw)
    make paper from remains of various plants, including rice straw

knowledge centers
    little computers in hundreds of villages
    resource centers for villages
Swam.Found. is both developing and transferring technology
it takes a long time to make people litearate
    but techno-literacy is somewhat easier

parasitic wasps - 4-5 cards per acre
    destroy certain insect pests
    not trying to kill insects, just keep their numbers in check

power of cow
    small scale production
    avg 1 hectare (2 acres)
    can plant nitrogen fixer
    small farmers can more closely watch their crops
       can count insects closely

final example - local insecticide
    5 kilos fresh cow dung
    3 liters cow urine
    3 liters sugar cane juice
    3 liters tender cocomnut
    12 liters plantain
    xx xxxx
    1 liter fermented curd
   yield, about 20 liters. only need 3 liters per hectare

what about us
    we have a lot of stuff
    1.6 bil pens
    16 bil diapers
    26 bil plastic grocery bags
    270 kilos packaging / person / year
    776 bil kilos total / year

you students must be the ones to redesign
    Ipod is much smaller than a bunch of CDs
    a textbook imagines the world
       semester at sea is entirely different, much more ipact
    reorganize how we make things
    example: book not made from trees
    we can remake the way we make things

Monday, March 14
Prof. Carol Saunders, A War of Words: Language as a Political Tool in a Global Economy

Some Swedes translating African stories  for themselves,
    not using other European or American sources
    to avoid Euro-centric bias.

how do you pick a common language
    if try to avoid English

you do it by using power
societal impacts of using English as a language

roadmap of today's talk
    framework: Bradshaw-Campbell and Murray

English as a power language
    English is official lang of air traffic control
       works until communication problem
       tenneriffe, 1977  worst aircraft crash in history
          Pan Am landing and KLM taking off at same time
          Dutch pilot used continuous present tense
                "I am at takeoff"
          controller assumed this meant was he was waiting
          pilot whould have used progressive tense:
                "I am taking off"
          controller gave permission for other plane to land
       implicit assumption that providers in other countries do English
       in Eur, 69% of managers speak English
       connected over backbone
       hard to shutdown
       phenomenal growth
          800 mil users
          126% 200->2005
Languages on internet
       English 35%
       Chinese 14%
       Japanese 8%
       Spanish 7%
       German  6%
    but Chinese rising fast
Framework of Power (B-C & M)
    rational - logical decision making
    pluralist - obvious political
    interpretive - control social structure of meaning
          e.g., forbidden city sun dial
             symbol of power of emperor to give time
             people believed emporer had this power
    radical - beliefs outside a social context
          e.g., Marxism
    digital divide - geeks will rule

Rational Perspective (on English as universal language)
    Arpanet was a US invention
    NSF backbone
    Golden rule - he who has the gold rules
    US recognized as tech leader
    1.1 bil English speakers

{ If the discussion is about English as a Universal language, why is Arpanet an issue? Arpanet was conceived and used as a tool for transmitting bits. It is true that many of those bits represent language, but that is a usage artifact and not ever part of the design of Arpanet. It is a fact that digital representation favors languages with alphabets. Alphabetic representations were a key enabler of Gutenberg 's invention of movable type. It could be argued that lack of an alphabet contributed to slow adoption of technology by China. They are currently, however, rapidly making up for lost time.}

Pluralist perspective
    social power is linguistic power in virtual communities
    offical lang: a political decision
          e.g., Eng in India and European Union
          India: 18 official lang; Hindi 40%
             political resistance to Hindi
             Eng by default
Land and Power in European Union
    Recently went from 11 to 20 official languages
       raised cost by US$ 1.3 bil
       generated 0000's tons of paper
       adding langs added  110 translators
       problem, e.g.: Latvian to Maltese
    Eng is first lang by 16% and 2nd lang by 31%
       unofficially Eng used for 60% OF WORK

Interpretive Perspective
    internet has US values
       low power distance
       low uncertainty avoidance

{Be careful to avoid my personal confusion at this point. I interpreted Saunder's remark as claiming that the Internet was designed to have US values and to thus denigrate the values of others. Rather, the meaning is simply that there is a fit between the characteristics of the network and US values. This fit may well have contributed to  acceptance and advancement of the network within the US. Where else? I challenge the reader to design a network that supports some other value system.}

Radical Perspective
    within 100 yrs, 90% of worlds langs will wither
    cultures may be lost with the language
    technology is not culturally neutral
    those who cannot adapt may hit the digital divide

Implications of Eng as Language of Internet
    web design
    offensive symbols
       thumb up
       stop sign

{English is not "the language of the internet." The internet is a tool for sending around information encoded in bits. Each bit is either a zero or a one. Bits are NOT culturally biased. For exchange of text, computer scientists have worked hard to develop Unicode. It specifies the relation between bit patterns and letters for almost all alphabetic languages and a huge chunk of the Chinese and Japanese characters as well.}

Steps being taken
    making internet more accessible
    sensitivity to other cultures
    WWW consortium

The use of English as the lang of the internet
impacts power  at a social level
however, it is possible to make the web more
    culturally acceptable

How well do you speak Chinese?

{Web technology does NOT have a bias toward English. A lot of talented people have spent a lot of time to ensure that pages can be created and designed for any language and culture. And popular browsers implement the cross-cultural tools in order to increase their user base. (I.e., there is an economic impetus for plurality.) Since the web was created in English speaking countries, there is a still preponderence of pages in English, but that it rapidly changing.  By-the-way, the web was started by physicists at CERN in Europe. Physicists are another community that do much of their work in English, because the individuals have so many diverse native tongues. Fortunately, physicists rarely control dangerous moving devices like airplanes.}

Dr. Pat Curtin, Mass Communication in Global Interaction
avg Amer 4.5 hrs / day
    by HS grad: more time at TV than in classrooms
add iPod, IM, ...
what you used to know of world came from the mass media

Curtin studies how media functions
their interpretive power
    how to they help inform multiple world views
media are a form of expression
1st amendment
    only business protected in the Constitution
UN article 19 (of declaration of rights) says freedom of press
    is a universal human right
XXX House studies the gegree of freeedom
    20% of world's pop has free press
    38% partly free
    42% lack free press
Least free we will visit is Vietnam

Knowledge is power
in Vietnam, can get damages for a story, even if story true
in VN, not a lot of newspaper readers
       because they won't learn much from newspaper
VN citizens have all their email and web sites monitored
China, Cambodia, and Venezuela are also not free
    in Venezuela, private media was in forefront of opposition
       now squelched (to protect children)
       Journalists have switched to
                illegal underground radio broadcasting
media control helps gov't maintain their power base
partly free
    Kenya, Hong Kong, Brazil, Tanzania
    corrupt gov'ts putting on restraints
   (aside: corruption in Africa is due to remnants of colonialism)
    Brazil: partly free due to economic issues:
          media concentration
             mostly controlled by one company, Globo
          lack of diversity; many voice shut out
    Curtin has 7 FM stations available,
          but six owned by Clear Channel
          no real choice
    Brazil: 4000 groups applied for licenses
          got no reply
fully free: Soth Africa, Japan, Korea, US
major functions of media
    surveillance - inform us of what we need to know
          Pope in hospital - why is this important
    watchdog  - investigative
       ?weapons of mass destruction
are there limitations?
          so seek out thesame insiders all the time
          they are primary definers of our daily events
    economics - they must make a profit
          half hour news is 22 minutes - including weather
          20 sec sound byte w/ 5 sec leadin and trailer
          70% of newspaper revenue is advertising
             pages limited by advertising
             Raleigh News&Observer - one half page of world news daily
                   only three stories on whole world
                   usually relevance to US
          CNN expense of foreign bureaus
             since AOL-TimeWarner merger
             now only one-third of former number of bureaus
                try reporting on deadline two hours after arrival
we get a cultural shorthand of the news
    we talk about "the news"
    but really just a few of the events each day

third function of media
    transmit cultural value
    the "interpretive power"
media must create meaning for events
       reinforce our original cultural values
       tell us who the "other" is
             thereby reinforcing our own identity
    Curtin never before in India
    had some Indian friends
          some world history
          a few new stories
          nature documentaries
          Bollywood - lots of singing and dancing
       not particularly friendly
       no ethnic unrest
       no disasters
       no elephant tiger or cobra
       not much singing and dancing
    previous image not "wrong",

4th function of media - entertainment
transmitting cultural values through entertainment
Bollywood - 6th largest industry in India
    2nd to Hollywood, in # films per year
lavish, long, cheesy, lip-synced, all the same plot
    what cultural value to india
       escapism and eye candy
       happily ever after exists
       fits w/ reincarnation
    Bollywood has taken off in sub-Saharan Africa

African enterment forms
    edutainment - radio dramas
    radio is cheap
    most villages have radio sets
       community gathers to listen
       sponsored by gov't or NGOs
       include education: AIDS prevention, crop enhancement
Latin Am. 
       all same plots
       trying to deal with like's issues
    Venezuela - strongly Catholic
    plots exploit "Catholic guilt"
    everyone suffers long, loud, and latin style
    eventually redemption
    prime time six days a week
          everything stops
          all gather around - women, men, children, maybe the maid
    six month run time - not eternal
    Latin Am. cultural values
       ? family planning
       ? preg out of wedlock
       ? environment
       ? social inequality
       can discuss issues in private, even if not public

today: overview of how media function in cultures
    economic, entertainment

Tuesday, March 15

Prof. Linda Winkler, AIDS: A modern global epidemic

"Broken bodies, broken bones, broken voices on broken phones. Take a deep breath, feel like you are chokin’ Everything is broken.”   Bob Dylan, Everything is broken
an aids victim
(Picture of woman w/ AIDS. She died soon after.)
red ribbon over "AIDS"

(Pictures of children with AIDS.)

Today's Topics:
    AIDS in US
    AIDS globally
    different patterns of AIDS
    AIDS inAfrica

AIDS is disease, victims, economic, inequality
(picture of grandparents. children have died. now raising grandchildren
(picture of monogamous women with AIDS contracted from husband
(picture of teenagers 15 and 19; parents have just died of AIDS; older brother left
(women do not speak to strangers; making bricks to pay taxes to keep the land
(story of children: 13; AIDS since birth
(has AIDS, uncle is accountant and has a sponsor in US
(Martine: AIDS at birth, in orphange
(Aquesa. Lived in hospital for a year. now has sponsor

Stereotype: AIDS is stable problem
            Not true, AIDS is increasing. And increasing in US
            More people living with AIDS.
            Not more people dying, because of drugs
Number of people living with HIV 39.4 million
Estimated number of people living with HIV, in millions (UNAIDS)

1 million cases in USA

            Annual increases 3-6%
            Increasingly, new infections in USA
                    are from heterosexual contact
            In teenage US, occurrence is 0.1%. 
                    Approx one person on ship.

Why is AIDS such a problem?
--Back in the bedroom once again: SEX, SEX SEX
It is a disease that hitchhikes on the human drive to reproduce and nearly everyone tries to reproduce
                  advisee complaint:
                      if use condoms, cannot have children
--It is a dormant disease for years, difficult to track
--It spreads through body fluids, i.e blood therefore easily spreads through standard medical procedures
--The world’s population became much more mobile with
        air travel,
        mass movements of refugees
        migration for work
                What does migration for work mean:
                In Tanzania avg income US$100/yr.
                travel to work costs $100 by bus. $300 by plane.
                So workers don't travel home. Often find local partners
        localized infections easily spread
                AIDS found in many women raped by soldiers
--It spreads from mother to child perinatally during the birth process and through breast feeding
                  transmission is 25-45%
                        (depending on who you read)
                  unless drugs available
--Stigma and misinformation
            e.g., Chennai has est. 60,000 cases
                yet only one hospital in Chennai
                admits patients with AIDS
{ In The World According to Garp, his mother dies of a wasting disease, implicitly AIDS. The hippie generation in the early 60's had the mantra, "Make love not war." They lived out this fantasy with "free love," unwittingly providing a culture hospitable to AIDS.  (Perhaps free love was yet another example of males using a "religion" to satisfy their sex urge.) }

Additional Issues related to AIDS
----Poverty does not cause AIDS but it creates a contributory environment of limited resources
             Poverty means you can't get drugs
--The economic costs of AIDS are huge, enhancing poverty
        (loss of income and manpower, funerals)
            families are pressured to have expensive funerals
            dying people ages 28-40; the heart of the work force
--The social and economic costs of AIDS orphans are huge
--Health care costs are huge, particularly for opportunistic disease such as Tuberculosis & encephalitis, meningitis
            these diseases invade because AIDS destroys the immune system
“Are you unaware that vast numbers of your fellow men suffer or perish from need of things that you have to excess.”
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1755

What is this disease and what is known about it?
---- AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
-- HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)(HIV 1, HIV 2)
             HIV-1 is common in Africa and is worse than HIV-2
-- Type of lentivirus, These viruses are common to many primates (SIV, simian deficiency virus)
-- The disease leads to progressive decline of normal immune function and the diagnosis of AIDS
-- The progression of the disease depends on which form  is acquired, general nutrition and health of the individual, culture, economic, and environmental conditions
             e.g., economics may control access to drugs
Average # of years from exposure to diagnosis of AIDS in the West=10 years
             (some claim progression is faster in Africa)
             (many AIDS victims die of malaria or other diseases)
            {in fact, AIDS itself is rarely deadly
                it just lets in lots of deadly diseases}

What is the History of the public epidemic?
--1978-heterosexuals in Tanzania and Haiti and gay men in USA and Europe show signs of AIDS --1981-CDC reports unusual pattern of immune deficiency diseases among homosexuals
        similar pattern noticed in Europe
                 clusters of diseases humans rarely get and almost never die of
--1982-CDC links the new disease to blood  term AIDS used (853 people die in USA)
--1983-Institut Pasteur in France isolates the virus (4251 people die in USA)
--1985-FDA approves first HIV antibody test blood testing begins in USA and Japan later elsewhere                     so blood becomes safe for donation
                (many early deaths in USA were haemophiliacs)
--1987-AZT is approved as first anti-HIV drug
--1991-a second drug approved for use in the USA
         It is estimated that 10 million have HIV in world
--1992-1997-many new drugs approved in USA
        multiple drug cocktail use
        death of many celebrities
    Programs to prevent maternal-infant transmission (Nevirapine)
        22 mil people infected in world
    Many non-western countries begin AIDS surveillance
          particularly Africa, but only in cities
v1988-USA jumpstarts its education process 
    Surgeon General mails out 107 million copies of “Understanding AIDS
                  one to every known household

Origin of AIDS: Where did it come from?
Three known early cases of AIDS:
--1959 blood sample of adult male, DRC (central Africa)
--1969 tissue sample of USA teenager in St Louis
--1976 tissue sample of Norwegian sailor
--Best guess is that HIV originated from monkey or chimp viruses SIV, transmitted to humans by eating or handling killed bushmeat
                cut oneself while butchering, maybe
                this happens with ebola
--Disease initially localized
    Spread with movement of people;
    High risk groups in initial phases:
        truckers, migrant workers, sex workers, soldiers
        spread to wives by HIV+husbands or partners
                computer simulation suggests AIDS started in 1930s

AIDS Cases Globally:Regional HIV and AIDS statistics
aids by continent Number of people living with HIV & AIDS, by region.

Women and girls are much more vulnerable to HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa than males.  Among infected 15-24 year olds, 76% are female.  Most females become infected through their partner’s high risk behavior.
               women pass AIDS to their children

Patterns of disease transmission
       patterns differ
       here are three examples
USA, Brazil
        (where there are excellent education and resources)
        Initially homosexual and drug users, later heterosexual
        Initially drug use and then heterosexual  
Sub-Saharan Africa
        (Limited educational opportunities and very limited resources)
        Primarily heterosexual
Note: AIDS defies all stereotypes, each region has variation that is culturally specific
“not one epidemic but many”

…“we will weigh life for life and see where the dead lie thicker, among the workers or among the privileged.” Rudolf Virchow, 1848

Cultural factors affecting AIDS
--Sexual practices
        First age of sexual activity
        Availability and status of sex workers
        Other types of transactional sex
               sex for clothes or chickens or school fees or lipstick
               necessary because no resources for women
        Tolerance for multiple partners
               particularly for men
               "Sweetheart, the chickies are just chapels, you're the cathedral."
        Condom use and male circumcision
               circumcision protects a little: better hygiene
               spread is worse in communities that do not admit homosexuality
--Marriage customs and age
        Bride price
                man pays woman's family
                 in one area, minimum is a cow, 3 yrs wages
        Levirate and sororate
               woman will marry dead husband's family member
               and vice versa if woman dies
               widow allowed to stay on land if give sex to brother-in-law
--Status of women
                if no control over reproductive life,
                    more likely to get AIDS
                in parts of Africa, 25-40% first sex is rape
--Resource availability
        jobs, education
        need for cash income
        medical facilities and treatment

Why are women a high risk group?
  • The fastest growing infections in many parts of the world are among women
  • "For most women, the major risk factor for HIV infection is being married, partner has been sexually active outside their partnership and is unsafe" (UN report)
  • Females may have no control over their own reproductive health
  • Females may have very limited resources and engage in transactional sex to gain access for resources for themselves and their families
  • Females may be sexually harassed and forced into sex in many environments including schools
  • Because of patriarchal systems, widows may lose their homes and cultural identity (legal right issues)
               men own the land (despite what the law says)

Factors Important in Transmission
China Tainted blood, Drug users, Sex workers
Sex workers, Drug use
Sex workers, Drug use, Homosexual
Sex workers, Drug users, Heterosexual
Heterosexual, Job migration, Sex workers
Sexual abuse against women
South Africa Job Migration, Heterosexual
Sexual abuse against women
Brazil Homosexual, Drug users, Heterosexual
Homosexual, Drug use, Heterosexual

What can be done ?
--Education programs need to be culturally specific
--Money is not enough,
    need trained health care workers and advisors
                sadly, people trained in medicine
                often abandon their villages
--Educate and empower women
--Develop pragmatic programs
--Offer support and antiretroviral treatment
--Support an orphan
        ($200 Tanzania, $400 Kenya, $600 India)

Treatment - (There is no treatment)
--Vaccines have been tested, none have worked so far
--Treatment for opportunistic infections
--Antiretroviral treatments
          (lower the level of HIV in blood)
    AZT (zidovudine)
    many others :-)
    drug cocktails dealing with combinations of many
        Cost= $324/yr Thailand (generic)
            $3500-14000/yr USA
                Medicaid: drugs only if disabled

Table. Estimated HIV Prevalence and Therapy Provided
People Living with HIV-AIDS
Prevalence in ages 15-49; Dec, 2003
Antiretroviral Therapy Coverage
2.2-7.6 mil
South Africa
Potentially 100%
            Only Brazil offers treatment free of charge
            South Africa, highest percent
            India, low percent, but high population
            Africa is in epidemic phase

How do you make a program work in a local area
Various pictures and their stories follow

Chez in Chennai
    she adopted 2 AIDS orphans
    and got energized
        set up an orphanage
        set up program for sex workers
           volunteer to use condoms
           empower to use condoms
           send spies (males) to check compliance

Lutheran church hospital in Tanzania
    30% HIV in the area (stats from blood donations)
limited resources
    (UNICEF scale, for babies, the only scale in the hospital
    kids sleep on floor; sick and healthy together
    picture: stark operating room
    anesthesiologist: high school education, but 11 yrs experience
health workers are routinely exposed to AIDS
    especially in obstetrics (midwives reach into the womb, if needed)
    14 deliveries\/day
people willing to work in AIDS environments
    these people are HEROES

boots to wear in sterile space
       take off shoes, step across red line, put on boots
no hot water
no disposable gauze
    everything is done w/ rags
AIDS Control Office Programs
Orphan support
Home Health care and Hospice
AIDS Education and Community Workshops
Counseling and Legal Support
A most effective AIDS counselor Haruma, an AIDS orphan
Maria, AIDS counselor Haruma
Haruma was found abandoned in the bush
Nurses thought she had AIDS wasting syndrome
            others fed her
            she gained 2 pounds in 2 weeks
            now a pudgy one yr old

Je waweza kumtamua mwenye UKIMI?
(Does someone you know have AIDS?)
depiction of various Africans in job-related garb

Wednesday, March 16
map of africa

Fessler: intro to East Africa
"Jambo" - Good morning
now begin 6-7 classes on Africa

most of what Westerners know of Africa is wrong
most Westerners know nothing of the ancient civilizations in Africa
Africans have range as great as from an Italian to a Swede

before 15th century, Europe knew little of Africa
slave trade changed that
except Europeans had to engage in massive denial to keep slaves
    had to deny to themselves that Africans had
            history, languages, culture, ...
Africans "couldn't be" just like Europeans
    in order to keep up slave trade
stereotype of African as primitive
even after slave trade ended
    because then industrial revolution began
    Europenas moving into exploiting African trade
even abolitionists bought into the myth
    they thought of themselves as giving needed help
    part of stereotype

Europeans began to colonize African
    to get resources
    claimed "righteous ca,[aign"
          to bring christianity and enlightenment to Africans
not until 1960s that views of Africa began to change in the West
Africans emerged from colonial rule and formed independent states

second reason know little of Africa:
    relative shortage of written of archelogical evidence
    Egypt has pyramids, temples, hieroglyphics
          so we know a lot about ancient Egypt
lack of stone in most of Africa
    built from biodegradable materials
    little remaining archelogical evidence
    now that we are looking, we are finding lots
ruins of Engarouka, northern Zimbabwe
    huge city along rim of great rift
    extensive road system of packed earth
oral tradition, not much written records
    advantage: wisdom can change slowly over time
    rather than locked into written rules {Leviticus}
    but hard to know if the oral tradition is accurate

there were visitors who made written accounts
    long before Europeans
    Arabs, Indians, Chinese

in sum: we will begin by talking about Africans
    not what Europeans think of Africa

East Africa
    (not calling it Kenya and Tanzania
    those are European constructs)

earliest inhabitants
    Khoisan people
    small in stature
    light skinned
    lighter hair
    the ancient group in Africa
small nomadic bands
    all throughout the Southern porition of Africa
    hunted game in open grasslands
    (most of Africa is open grassland, not a lot of jungle)
    gathered fruits, nuts, ...
once covered most of southern half of Africa
    today: San people

10,000 BCE second group moves south
    also hunters/gatherers
(note, in 10,000 BCE there were no civilizations)
sometime before 0 AD
    Cushites began to settle and farm
    gravitated to more fertile areas
       till the land, graze cattle
    interior and coastland
    Khoisan were in between
       in dry grasslands
100 BCE
    Cushites had a few scattered settlements along the coast
    began trading with outsiders
       sailors: Arabs mostly (from today's Yemen)
          some Indonesians
                left behind a language in Madagascar
                      and other artifacts
                               eg flat bar zither
    import tools, glass
    export ivory, rhino horn, tortoise shell

early CE, two waves of migration
    Bantu (many dialects of language group)
          {?? where from}
    from 0AD to 900AD
       occupied east africa
       absorbed Cushite communities
initially traditional Bantu villages
    ~1000 people
    thatched roofs
    a chief, pater of clan
trade accelerated
    Arabs, Persia, India, even China
long before West Africa had contact with outsiders
    thriving cosmopolitan trading area
villages became major trading centers
Bantu made
    trade regulations
    tax system
    guarantees of protection and safety

also some little trading cities started by Arabs or Persians
people getting wealthy
attracted permanant settlers from ouside Africa
    esp. Arabs
    often married Bantu women
    develped a mixed population of Bantu and Arabs
          this is the Swahili
          an African culture
             derived from interaction Africans-Arabs
Swahilis travelled the coast
    unified the culture along the coast
    Swahili became language of commerce
       and eventually the mother tongue
Swahili lang. includes lots of words from other langs
Swahili culture was new
    Islam became the dominant religion
    Bantu animalist beliefs got integrated in
    architecture and building techniques were new
stone homes several stories high
    laid out gardens
    fountains, pools
    stone piers for load/unload cargo
Arab dhows carrying cargo
larger ships from Persia nad India
occassional arrivals of flotillas from China

each city was autonomous
    led by a chief (head of local lineagfe group)
    but now called themselves sheiks or sultans
there was never a single Swahili country
inheritance some places male, others female

dress changed
    Swahili men long robes, small hats
    " women, long robes
gradually adopted Arabic writing
    used for writing the Swahili langue
       now: literature, poetry, religious works,...

Swahili was not imposed
it evolved in place from the variour influences

some tensions between cities
    and between coast and inland Bantus
war noticeably absent
    no standing armies
    no effort to expand territory
peaceful, thriving African culture

16th century: Europeans arrive
Vasco de Gama, 1498
    looking for water route to India

at that time:
    Islam all across. Spain to Indonesia
    Europeans wanted spices from India
       but travel by land
       through Islamic countries
       pay the middleman
       wanted a sea route
Europeans had failed to travel South on west coast of Africa
    did not know how to sail into the wind
    fixed sails
    other cultures knew how to tack into the wind
    Portugeuse highly motivated
          finally figured it out
    1434: first Portugese sailor to get past trade winds
    Diaz: 1488, got around the Cape

Vasco de Gama discovered all the cities
        along the East coast of Africa
       did not understand the population was a mix
1505 Portugal sent Naval force to East Africa
    instructions: make pact with Swahili against the Arabs
    wanted forts to block the red sea
          wipe out the land trad
the Swahili chiefs resisted
    no match for cannons and arms
for centuries war was just a minor matter to Swahilis
    Portugese had no trouble taking over
    e.g., leveled Mombasa and killed everyone there
Portugese planned to take over the trade
    trade diminished
    because Swahilis turned off the supplies from the interior
       no ivory, etc.
Portugese built their forts and stayed
    settled for trade directly with India
by end of 16th century, the Swahili cities were devastated
Portugal was eventually forced out
    Swahilis rebuilt, but not to earlier extent

Inland Bantus
    went to great lakes area
          Victory, etc
    separate development from coast groups
    great lakes
       largest fertile area in Africa
    BUT: indigenous plants not sufficiently nutritious or high yielding
    not enough to feed large numbers of people
       low carrying capacity (see Yeomans)
    so interior Bantu did not develop large groups
    did get rainforest plants from the coast, and thence form Inodnesia
          cocanuts, yams, ...
    population began to increase
       larger cities, social structures
fourteenth century
    another in-migration
         Nilotic language groups from the north
    came down both sides of Nile to Lake Victoria
mixing of Nilotics, Bantu, Khoisan, ...
    each group adapted its ways
       learned from other groups
    Masai and Turkhanas
       became pastoral societies
Masai taboos:
    kill wild animal
    raise crops
    "digger of the earth" is now a slur
    (originally, Masai were growers)
    use cattle for everything
    wound up on fertile land and became skillful farmers

for now we'll skip slave trade
    four centuries

when the slave trade began to die
European colonization began

Europeans needed resources and markets
flurry of exploration of African interior
    looking for resources
    more trading stations
       repurposed from slave trade to other trade
get chiefs to sign things they didn't really unerstand
Sultan of Zanzibar ruled the east coast
    German missionaries came into what is now Tanzania
1884 - Germany declared that certain areas were "protectorates
    Cameroon, Togo, SW Africa, Tanzania
    omitted Zanzibar - left Sultan sit there
          British were wanting Zanzibar
1885-1915 various European countries grabbed parts of Africa
    France, England, Germany, Portugal, Italy, Spain
    giant game of "Land Grab"
 e.g., 1890 - Brits traded an island for Kenya

most Africans bitterly opposed being colonized
hundreds of thou Africans died fighting colonization
like native Americans, the natives lost

in 1884 the Sahili rose up
    forced evacuation of cities
    heavy German losses
    German navy took over w/ aid of other Eur. navies

Maji-maji rebellion
    protest among Africans against the heavy taxes being imposed
    taxes forced people to work on European projects
       to earn the sort of money needed to pay taxes
heavt sabotage
besieged cities

in Kenya, Uganda the Brits got little opposition
until 1950s, Maumau rebellion

at end of WWI, Gemrnay lost its colobnies
    but other countries took over

colonialism only about 50 years
culture destroyed
    chiefs eliminated
    forced to change life style : eg hunter to farmer
lines drawn on map
    w/o respect to traditional tribal areas
now lots of tribal warfare since the boundaries are wrong

Example: one culture
small culture of hunters/gatherers
    NW Kenya
    part of Uganda
    part of Sudan
"Ik" people
    hunted big game in Kidipu Valley
       now in Uganda
    migrated in big annual circle following the game
    small groups
       because moving
    huge nets across the valley
       stretched by women and children
       killed by the men
all children raised communally
    hut location dictated the groups taking care
    can change location every time one moves
       which is often
colonial powers arrived
    now whose citizen are you
    who gets your taxes
    forced Ik to stay in the hillsides of Uganda
    made Kidipu valley a game preserve
    forced Iks to take up agriculture
    Ik culture fell apart
       could not resolve personal issues by moving hut
interpersonal tensions
land not good for agriculture
collective society evolved into individualistic society
dangerous to have baby - not enough food
    so breast feed to age three
       then abandon children
    roving bands of kids of various age groups
    people taking food out of others mouths
    push people into canyons
    nightmare: highly individualistic
    walls between hut areas
    starved themselves out of existence


Tuesday, March 22
cap Fessler  was reading on the bus yesterday. A student guessed he was making more exam questions. "Oh no," says he, "I'm making sure there is a lecture tomorrow."

exam is on B16. Day before Cape Town.
study group 3:15 Deck 5 dining room
Interport lecturer for Cape Town
    Chiwoza Bandawe
    Psychologist, U. Cape Town

Last lecture, East Africa
Thriving trade center. EG, on deck last evening

Today: Slave Trade
What happened, why, and how
Start: What is slavery?
    Holding someone against their will
       and forcing them to do work against their will
    The slave has done nothing to deserve the fate.
       (As opposed to criminal convicted for a crime.)

Slavery has been around for along time.
And continues
E.g., sexual slavery everywhere.

Possible to consider levels of slavery
eg, degree of brutality
European slavery quantitatively and qualitatively different

Africans had slavery for centuries before Europeans arrived
howevr, European slave trade much bigger and more brutal
       thus fundamentally different for what happened within African

Slaves in Africa prior to Europeans
type 1. slaves sold for export
    as early as 1000 BCE
          king captured and sold to asia, africa, and southern Europe
    Aesop was a slave, belonged to a Greek family
    slaves were prisoners taken in battle
in early centuries CE
    steady trade of slaves North across Sahara
    also from east africa in india and asia
    small scale trading
       did result in African communities in Middle East
Zanj Rebellion in 1870 near Basra.
    100,000 black african slaves
    rebellion did not last long
slavery was a by-product of war
    change in self-image: I am a loser
    not a regular trade
many Africans lived S. of Egypt
    and were captured in slavery
    their descendants merged into Egyptian society
growth of Islam stimulated slave trade into N. Africa
    Moslems needed cheap labor for engineering projects
    African slaves brought across the Sahara
    African slaves constituted units in Islamic military
       a slave could rise to positions of power and prestige

within Africa there was still slavery
form (a)  most slaves were conquered people
            (more than just captured soldiers)
          were looked down on and only could get lowest jobs
form (b) prisoners taken in battle
       taken back to conqueror's homeland
       palace guards, presonal servants to king
       could rise to positions of power and prestige
          confidants, insiders in the court
       some slaves had slaves of their own
    descendants of slaves would melt into larger population
slaves were part of the chief's wealth and power
    so king had a vested interest
            in keeping slaves healthy and working hard
master-slave relation was an accepted part of society
being a slave was a change in personal identity
    not something unexpected
In the pre-European slave trade,
    slavery was an identity, not a commodity

--The Europeans arrived--
Europeans couldn't sail into the wind
    couldn't get past Morocco
eventually learned how and
    sent expeditions increasingly far south

(remember: East coast had lots of trading cities)
On west coast
    no cities or large towns
    no deep harbors
    rivers seldom navigable for more than a mile or so
most of the wealth and civilizations were in the interior

As Portugese travelled south, there was nothing to conquer
there was trading
    anchor off-shore
    trade via small boats

physically difficult to get inland
thick rain forest
    local Africans exagerated the thickness of the forest
    didn't want Europeans to deal directly with inland civilizationss
Portugese established a few small trading posts
by 1500, Portugal firmly established all around Africa

Other European countries traded mainly in Europe
Spain focussed on the new world
1450-1600 African connected to Europe through Portugal
Spain took over Portugal by marriage
in 1588 English defeated Spanish armada
    Spain lost ships
    began to lose control of trade w/ India
    began to lose control of African coast
soon many (hundreds) European trading posts
            from Senegal to Angola
    on land rented from local chiefs or kings
          treaty or contract
          acknowledged sovereignty of the chief
interior of W. Africa populated with thriving
       agricultural societies
    linked in a huge trade system
    center was inland
    headwaters of the coastal rivers
    kingdoms on coast were part of trade system
       peripheral, poorer
       saw Europeans as a way to get wealthy
          become middlemen
what did Europe sell?
    luxury items
        cloth, tools, and similarly
        coastal chief could get wealth by having/selling these things
    gun powder, guns, ammo
       increased the power of the coastal kingdoms
local production began to dry
     eg, there was an iron industry
        it became less valuable as imports became cheaper than local production
      similarly cloth
Africans became dependant on Europeans
 Europeans getting
    gold, ivory, beeswax, slaves
from the beginning slaves were part of the trade goods
early Portugese knew they could bring back slaves
    but not much demand in Europe

Europeans colonized islands
    needed slaves to run the works
slave trade really developed
            with the exploration and settlement of the Americas
    Europeans set up mines and plantations
       needed slaves
       indigenous people died off quickly
          European diseases
thru the sixteenth century slave trade grew
    European capture of slaves dried up
    mostly the slaves were captured by ither Africans

trade triangle
leg 1. Manufactured goods from Europe to Africa
    traded for slaves
leg 2. slaves carried to Americas
    sold for sugar, tobacco, gold, etc.
leg 3. goods from the Americas to Europe
    and on around again
profits in order: Europeans, Americans, Africans

the slave trade was called
    "The Middle Passage"
lasted for four centuries (1451-1870)

big business
    not renegades capturing a few slaves
    licensed by the Europena governments
capturing slaves not new
treatment was new
    long marches to coast
    warehoused on the coast
slaves became a cargo and were so treated

volume of captured slaves was massive
during 1451-1870
    about 10 mil Africans brought to Americas as slaves
        3.5 mil went to Brazil (Portugese)
            mostly to Salvador (Bahia)
        3.5 mil to Carribean
        1.5 mil to Spanish Amer
            Mexico, etc
        .5 mil to US and Canada
        another mil to scattered places
mortality rates high in Carribean and Brazil
    so they needed more slaves delivered
            in order to wind up with they needed
est.: 15% died going across Atlantic
crammed into slaving ships
    starved, suffocated
many Africans died in capture battles, marches, and coastal warehouses
est.: one died for each one delivered to Americas
    (22 mil Africans gone)
Slave trade shifted from West to East Africa
market reached saturation in the Americas
French colonized islands in Indian Ocean
    many slaves from East Africa went to East Indies
    Zanzibar became a major market
    est: 2 mil Africans shipped from East Africa
by 1810, slave trade began to decline
rapid, sharp drop in 1840
aolishionists had no impact until there was a drop in demand
slavery stopped being profitable
slave trade declared illegal in US after 1810 {S Hansen says 1808}
Brazil in 1870 {? 1877 S} was last to declare the trade illegal

what if slave trade never happened?
we'll never know
the most enduring effect was the attitudes developed
    among Europeans, and among Africans
you cannot enslave people and still consider yourself a Christian society
you have to dehumanize the slaves
    this is central difference between early intra-African slavery
    and the European slave trade
all sorts of derogatory beliefs about Africans
        arose in Europe and the Americas

Wednesday, March 23
Introduce inter port student Naro Manjate, please make her welcome

Today, music.
Prof. Dennis Waring, "I'm so glad to be in Africa"
Please welcome my main squeeze, Susan.

music and sensibility of subsaharan Africa
broad strokes: music and African sensibility

Africans exhibit an unabashed exuberance of spirit and sexuality
dances have a lot to do w/ celebrations of our bodies
    not the hesitation seen in other cultures
    very different from Asia
different sense of what they think of as beauty
in asia all instuments play the same melodies
in India music is complex beyond imagination
    highly theorized rhythms, elaborate raga scales

we are in Africa
    rhythm rules the day

How many forms of music in USA culture
    have their roots in African culture?
And what would we be listening to and buying if not for the huge infusion of African & African/American sensibiity

the one positive outcome from the importation of slaves:
    the import of African music

kinds of muswic imported
spirituals / work songs / field hollers
    even Stephen Foster
    minstrel show
    (a precursor to jazz)
    louis armstrong
    new orleans jazz
    count bassie
       big band
free jazz
rock and roll
    elvis presly
appalachin music
    seemingly quintessentail American music
    back beat
boom checka boom checka boom
    not from British isles
    pure african back beat
plethora of world musics

example music
    (sounds like) "mackinaw"
music of "your" generation
    rap and hip-hop
    rap has affected the whole world
    has value for mrginalized subcultures
rap goes back to African roots
    Grioze (sp?)
muscial diplomats - represent chiefs
    dub music
    break dancing

this contemporary form of music (rap)
    is pure African sensibility

(haven't begun with Latin American music)

bottom line: without African, what music would we have
    puritan hymns?

Africa has had many challenges
3 times size of USA
4 millions yrs of life in Africa
600 mil people
    animists, protestants, catholics
when you talk religion, you music talk about music
    music is the conduit, the telephone to the spirit world

hieerarchy of musical styles
all africa
music of west Africa
    its own drumming traditions
east Africa
    we were there
central Africa
    has some common traits
southern Africa
    we are going their

further breakdown by tribes

African began a target for exploitation in eighteenth century
boundaries drawn without regard to tribal areas
mon-dai area of west Africa split to several countries

suppose someone comes in and says
    your belief systems
    your gods
    your language
are all obsolete
forced to speak different languages on the two sides of a street
ruthless enforcement
    schools, languages, political systems, religions, ..

Waring has a problem with calling Africans "primitve people"
they have far more clever ways of survival
    how long would a westerner last if dropped
          into a desert or onto a mountain
    far more sophisticated than our own culture

how to think about African music
different classification categories
    no "classical music"

but there is royal music
(segment plays: drumming)
rhythms in Africa are much more sophisticated than those in western culture

lots of repetition
repetition has power
constant variations going on

in oral traditions, music is crucial to creating outcomes
music is highly maintained and profesionalized

llittle embellishment in African music
drum jams are not African music
little improvization
    only master drummer varies
    and he does it the same way every time
the beat may change from time to time

uses of music
    rites of passage
        (adolescence is an invention of the 1950s)
        real passage rites involve pain
    celebrate nature's bounty
    entreat spirits for crops
    hunters, royalty
       some drums to be played only by women
    politics, maintenance of status
       eg, American president: Hail to th Chief
       engage both halves of brain to learn things

another dimension
music as another voice
    another way to express oneself
music takes us back to being human
    differentiate from animals

we are all genetically African
has to do with rhythm
    cosmic in proportion
    heavenly rhythms
       what repeats trhoughout universe
rhythm is points in time
    periodicity of stars, planets, seaons, tides,
    rhythms of bodies: heartbeat,
    da dung da dung   da dung da dung
    rhythm of making love
    holidays christmas
    annual sporting events
rhythms of life adopted into music
puritans scared of rhythm
    scared of anything fun

Waring loves to camp out in woods a lot  
loves to sit around and listen to the nocturnal sounds
    insects, frogs
       ribbit ribbit ribbit ribbit
       che che che    chee che chee
       phygh pah  phygh pah
       click click chuck click click chuck
suppose you're a hominid on plains of Africa
    remember how minute you were in the vast landscape
    environment threatening
early humans tried to befriend the threatening items
    reflect the sounds and movements of the natural things about them
all the rhythms were important
    can hear before you can see an animal
spirits in nature weere assumed to be assuaged and friendly
pygmy in forests of Africa
    they know the forest is a friend
    when the forest goes to sleep, it may be bad
    molino rites: play trumpet in forest to wake it
pygmys are not hierarchic
other tribes dress in feathers, wear skins
    make instruments from natural objects
       gourds, elephant tusks, skins for drumheads

become a part of nature
    not apart from nature
when did the West decide to conquer nature
Animism was first of the belief systems
    why is it not capitalized?
Animism suggests that the forces of nature permeate everything
    including you and me
    what is, IS
the forces of nature are God

in Ghana, if chop tree for drum
    offer libations to the tree
    say prayers
    explain to tree that it will be used for good purpose
    blessed and prayed over and sung over throughout process
    decoration stnading for certain pieces of wisdom
drum eye is faced out to chief or master drummer
the drum AND its sound are beings

unique: polyrhythms
many rhythms piled on top of each other
    they finally come together in a beatiful whole
    (like building cloth from pieces)

bring on the drummers
the drums are like a fmaily
    father mother sons brothers sisters
how the bits fit together
dance = sing = play
"gahoo wey"
"hey dog bey"
bells are the central beat
gourd rattles
layers of drums

more on pre-port
model: transatlantic triangle
    Europe, Africa, Americas
music fluid around the Atlantic for centuries
capitals in Europe
    have music industries featuring Africans freed from their local politics
quickened w/ advent of radio
CDs and internet has opened it all wide
Waring nervous about some things
    disco-ification of Asian music
    uneasy when he sees ancient traditions
          eroded and disappearing
he has faith in hman spriti
    sameness will be abhorent to human psyche
    something new will result
lastly Village Choir
singing African song
    composed 1897
    nat'l anthem of Zambia
    the most meaingful song from S. Africa
       power surpassing local politics
come spirit and bless Africa, bless us
    {doesn't come close to the village welcome song in Gods Must be Crazy}

Wednesday, March 23
South africa
14% white 86% non-white
1994 first democratic election in S. Africa
    ended 3.5 centuries of white minority rule
had a long history
    of institutionalized racism

how did it come about?
way back
original inhabitants - two closely related tribes
    San - nomadic hunter gathers
    Khoi - semi-nomadic hunters and pastoralists
          ie herds of cattle and sheep
co-existed for centuries
 often referred to as simply Khoisan
    oldest inhabitants of Africa
    cave paintings up ti 70,000 yrs old
300 BCE
    Bantu began to move into southern Africa
    Bantu were farmers
       300 different dialects of Bantu
major dialects
had knowledge of iron
    had tools

the tribes split the territory
    the San moved to drier inland areas
    Khoi moved to west coast
    Bantu remained in the east part

the groups more-or-less got along
continued undisturbed until fifteenth century
Portugese arrived
    Diaz and De Gama both stopped at the cape
    didn't stay
for the next hundred yrs, no Portugese stayed
    no wealth
    locals grew suspicious and distrustful
    & esp. waters around Cape were treacherous
       many shipwrecks
       so stopping was not a welcome thing to do

    British defeated Spanish Armada
    Spanish king was temporarily ruling Portugal
    Portugese ships were sunk in the defeat of the Armada
    Portugese lost sailing capability
    so other European countries moved into Africa

in S. Africa the dutch moved in
Dutch East India Company
       (similar to British EAC)
Dutch EAC traded with East Indies
       (not so much India)

    Dutch ship wrecked while going around cape
    survivors made it to land
    not picked up for a year
    explained that it was possible to live in S. Africa
Dutch gov't decided to make a settlement
    a good stopping off point for voyages
1652  DEAC sent ships to establish settlement
    built hospital
    marked the navigation channels
    grew food
    bartered with the local Khoi
settlers from Holland were encouraged to go the colony
    given free land
    initially 35 mile radius from Cape Town
    but later settlers needed more land
       and moved further
    took Khoi grazing lands
Khoi fought back
    Khoi lost
"Trek Boers" was the name for those beyond 35 miles
staked out huge farms in interior
    needed cheap labor force
    so they got slaves
       local Khoi (though DEAC forbid this)
       from south Asia, indonesia
Trek Boers evolved a culture of their own
    diverged from Dutch roots and Cape Town
    independent souls
    like American wild west
    tough people
    isolated homesteads
    indigenous African dress
language began to change
    evolved to be Afrikaans
    mixture of 16th cent. dutch, german, english, protugese
          malay, Khoi
Trek Boers called themselves "Afrikaaners"

Afrikaaners easily subdued the Khoi
    eventually ran into the Bantu
    Bantu counted wealth in cattle
       needed grazing land
    fighting arose
    Xhosa were beating back the Afrikaaners
Afrikaaners appealed to Cape Town for help,
    did not get it

    DEAC failing financially
    Holland lessening as world power
    Britain rising
    1815, Britain bought Cape Town for 6 mil pounds
       wanted strategic location of Cape Town
    some Brits moved to Cape Town

British did not want to rule Africans
    just wanted to push them back
Dutch settlers disliked Brit rule
    esp. when Brits outlawed slavery

    horde of Boers decided to move further inland
       "The Great Trek"
       six years
       large wagon trains of Boers moving to interior
          to get out of British control
          about a third of the Boers
    moved into areas controlled by the Bantu
in Natal, the Boers ran into the Zulus
    Zulus were a poerful empire

ten years earlier Zulus were just another little tribe
    young chief
    brilliant warrior
    formed Zulus into powerful force
    changed from spears to swords
    innovated the outflanking maneuver
       {also used by Alexander}
    Zulus became a powerful empire
       other tribes simply conceded
Mfecane - "the crushing"
    the time when Africans fighting
    Zulus were winning
Shaka killed by his half-brother

Zulus began ambushing the Boers
Boers asked for help
    got guns and resources from other Boers
    guns defeated swords (as always)
    "Battle of Blood River"
       3000 dead Zulus, no dead Boers

Boers eventually set up two interior independent states
        Orange Free State
    slavery legal
    no rights for Africans
       "the people desire to permit no equality"
       for blacks

meanwhile, back in the Cape area
    Brits had farms
    no slavery
    imported "cheap labor"
       from INdia, China
       low wages, haard work
             (close to slaves)

1867 diamonds found
    on a bit of land claimed by everybody
    focus switched from agr to mining
Brits finally annexed the diamond area
    huge influx of people
    all sorts of associated industry
labor in the mines was racially divided
    blacks unskilled - down in mines
    white skilled - not in mines
    world's largest gold depsit discovered in Transvaal
    same racial diivisions

Boers gave ultimatum to Brits
    get your troops out
    two Boer states declared war on Britain
    Brits expected to win easily
    but war lasted 3 years
    Brits adopted scorched earth policy
    rounded up women and children
       concentration camps
       thousands died
especially ugly and brutal war
Africans joined Brit side
    the lesser of two evils

1910 - Brits decide to leave S. Africa
    decide to make S. Africa an independent state
    unoin of cape area, Transvaal, Orange Free Sate, Natal
    two languages: Dutch & English
    non-whites could not vote
    one poilitcal party: Nationalists - Afrikaaners
       white supremacists
1948 - Nationalists won
    campaigned on platform of apartheid
          institutionalize separation of the races
          put this separatino into the constitution
    started making laws right after they won
four categories
       Colored - mixed races
       Native - black    (75% of population)
    your category determined what laws applied to you
example law:
    job discrimination
       only whites could do skilled jobs
    education different for each category
       blacks got less since they could not get skilled jobs
       several generations of black systematically undereducated
    sex and marriage between categories was banned
    discrimination in all public buildings
    segregation as to where you could live
       people were massivley moved

Prof. Bandawe, the interport lecturer
    "The challenges to the field of psychology
          raised by the end of apartheid"
applies to many other subjects
one decade later
    stock-taking time
mark of any subject is its practical relevance
    problem for the humanities
psychology is a humanity
    and came from the west
    therefore not interesting to Africans
    doesn't address poverty
            life expectancy
constant challenge to psychology that it should address realities

How psychology contributed to maintaining the old inequalities
Apartheid involved all systems in getting legitamacy
Psych started in S. Africa in 1920s
started w/ psych testing
    many whites mentally defective
    testing to see why
       and distinguish normal from abnormal
1910 was time of class realloc
    authorities feared joint action
        by blacks and whites of lower mental capabilites
Verwort was a psychologist
    was Prime minister
psych testing was used to justify Apartheid
    by showing lower mental capability for blacks
    psychologists were to prove this
    first psychology professional group
1952 first black psychologists applied
    he was refused
psychology was white
    1988 90% white
1994 77% white
psych services mainly in urban areas
    rural areas left out

psych was then seen as having colluded w/ apartheid
his thesis supervisor dissented
interviews published

psychs perpetuated inequalities
1994: situation had to be redressed
    legislation: employment equites act 1998
          instituted quota system
                professional blacks to be employed
       universities to get more black students and profs
progress has been slow
    U Cape Town : 70% white professors

what change yardstick?
1 training: what has been done
    from 1994 to 2004
       only 64% white accepted for psych studies
       70% female
    in past four yrs, 31% blacks enter training
    today 18 % registered psychologists are balck
he is currently on aq search committee

2 what is taught?
    formerly teaching not relevant
       and research agenda not relevant to realities
    AIDS model has been the western one
       need indigenous models
       especially to effect genuine behavior change
    should look at local fables
       and how they were used to build character

 a traditional African story
The Rooster and the Swift
R and S thoroughly enjoyed fun
    but led to boasting and rivalry
       who is smarter than the other
R says it takes a really good brain to make a good trick
S suggests a party and guests to judge
each practiced his own trick
S went first
    wife had been told large pot of boiling water
    S proposed to jump into boiling water and come out unharmed
       has speed in steam fooled then into thinking he was inside the water
R said he could stay in twice as long
dead silence for first minute
after two minutes they damped the fire and found dead rooste
moral: never boast you can do a thing unless you are quite sure you can

Friday, March 25
{I left my glasses in my room this morning}
exam day after tomorrow
tomorrow's lecture not on exam

Fessler, more on S Africa
review apartheid

apartheid laws
restrictions on where you could live
many ppeolple had to be moved out
e.g. district 6
there is a district 6 museum
also created ten homelands
designated as homelands for blanks
    remote, barren areas
    only 15% of land area
gov't argued that they were doing the blacks a favor
    planned that homelands would be independent states
    indeed four of them did become independent
       but not given international recognition
       {and the rulers tripped out on power,  we read elsewhere}
but S Africa still needed the cheap labor
    so established townships within white area
    blacks could live there while working in white area
    workers barracks 13-20 / room
    minimal water, electricity
    poor sanitation
to get job
    register as a citizen as one of the fictional "homelands"
    {note that Hitler also used the term heimatland, or homeland
          it seems to be a favorite term of repressive governemnts}
    than in S Africa, you were an imigrant
    get a passbook to allow back into white area
all blacks needed to carry a passbook
    without it, could be deported
there was nothing to do in the homelands
    agriculture poor
    no factories
many blacks lived in white areas anyway
    sqatter camps grew up around the cities
    illegal, huge
    police bull-dozed periodically
       moved or rebuilt
over time: police became more restrictive
    arrested and jailed for no reason
    no law existed in squatter camps
    resistance arose
1900's - resistance began with Gandhi
    Gandhi was non-white and was discriminated against
    Gandhi was a lawyer
    began his notions of non-violent resistance
1912 - African Nat'l Congress
    group trying to find ways to change the gov't
    not a party
resistance escalated after Afrikaaners took power in 1948
    spiraling increase in resistance and repression
    {a positive feedback system}
    virtually martial law in the 70s and 80s
    police could enter black areas only in armored vehicles
moved toward lawlessness
    no discussions between gov't and blacks
S African was marginalized world-wide
    1960s banned from Oluympics
    many boycotts
    economic problems
arrest and jail without charges
1864 - Mandela arrested and jailed (until early 1990s)

eventually gov't got the message
    they had to change
F. W. DeClerk
    early 90s began to change apartheid
    released Mandela
    secret talks w/ Mandela to find solution
    eventually agreed on democratic election in 1994
          blacks and whites both vote
       but there would be a coallition gov't for a few years
1995 African Nat'l Cong. won
    there was then a coallition gov't
    Mandela agreed to coallition
       because whites would otherwise just leave
       and then the country would collapse
          blacks uneducated
          not enough doctors, lawyers, etc
    also agreed to not take away things from whites
so situation not really changed
    rich whites still living high on the hog

(each student should visit a township while in S Africa)

blacks now in charge
biggest problem: not enough educated blacks
    education will take twenty years

major problem: healing the ragged sores
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    Mandela, Tutu came up with the plan of healing
    get down on paper everything that happened
    so no one will ever forget
    invited public testimony
    met for three years
    if you testified with full disclosure
          you were given amnesty
          or if a victim, compensation
    the stories were on the web
       Fessler hopes they are still there

Prof. Bandawe, Future of Psychology
ystdy: challenges to psychology
in apartheid psychology co-opted to give gov't friendly answers
now let us look at where psych can go
to have impact on life of people,
       psych must adopt the worldview of the people
first step: begin by "hearing the narrative"
    listen to the people and hear where they are "coming from"
    rediscover the lost identity of African psychology
so: first look at world view (slides):
African Cosmology
Spirits (Good ) Ancestors Living Dead
Spirits (Evil) Witches
World of recently deceased
This cosmology is in the form of a hierarchy
    the living must do rituals to help the recently deceased
          graduate to the higher realm
    People are further split between Chief and Advisors

basically there is an interconnection
        between the spirit world and the  living
African renaissance
    an appeal for a strong African identity
    African identity has been lost through colonialism
    Ubuntu - overriding philosophy
       summarizes how people relate to each other
uBuntu Definitions
Ideal qualities and values of true human being
Ruel Khosa: Collective consciousness of the African people: Behaviour patterns, expressions, spiritual fulfilment, values sharing & treating other persons as humans, sensitivity to the needs of others

 Ubuntu is not new; since long before colonists arrived

  • “In the African traditional world view, the well being of man is intimately connected with the well being of the total creation. If a man abuses nature and the environment, nature will also abuse man” Augustine Musopole
  • “Our central principle is life and not reason” Musopole
  • Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu
    (A person is a person through persons)

Instead of Umuntu ... westerners are accustomed to Descartes:
    Cogito ergo sum. I think, therefore I am.
Instead the African philosophy is
    I am because you are

  • Collective interest should come before individual interest. Cooperation encouraged:
  • Mutu umodzi siusenza denga”
  • Individuality recognised:
  • “kufa saferana”; “Tsoka la wina ndi mwai wa wina”

proverb: one head cannot carry a roof
people die individually
proverb you can borrow utensils. but cannot borrow a face

Core values of ubuntu
Human relation to land
  hospitality example:  weddings are communal. no specific inviatations
  respect example: talk to neighbors on bus
      westerners sit on bus and do not talk to neighbors
  sympathy, for example, during hardship and death

 Traits of ubuntu
  • Self control, patience, moderation, politeness, honesty & empathy with reference to the welfare of others and community.
  • “I am because we are, and since we are, therefore, I am” – Mbiti
  • Interdependence between individual and community
"If you want to achieve what you want to achieve,
help others to achieve what they want to achieve."

NOW: How to apply above principles to schooling
    how to translate into practical action
traditional school has three dimensions:
    informing and forming the youth
    1 imparting life skills
       hand knowledge
       so people can work w./ their hands
    2. affect head
       e.g., secret terms for objects
    3. heart
education is wholistic: hand, head, and heart

Ubunutu education is wholistic

how to deal w/ heart knowledge
    how to creatre a psychology out of heart knowledge
Aftican stories are there to help shape character
    leave the handling of the gun to the hunter
    old age does not announce itself
    man is like palm wine
          in youth weak. in age, strong and harsh
    a stone thrown in anger never kills a bird
    if stretching were wealth, the cat would be rich
       (that is, the cat is lazy)
    daylight follows a dark night

proverbs do not control or manipulate
    just try to explain life

    peer influences are strong
    if sleeping around is viewed as manly, it will happen
    to affect change, must impart new symbols

there is considerable literature on indigenous knowledge
old knowledge - folklore
empirical knowledge - lies w/ elders
dreams, etc.
    traditional healer gets knowledge in dreams
          especially the call to become a healer
local, rooted in a particular culture
    not quantifiable
    oral transmission
    lost upon the death of elders

indigenous knowledge systems
    now codification
    so they can be applied in modern education

for social transformation to take place,
    need {something or other}

key: innovation
bring psychologists togehter
to say how to shape psychology into something that can help
need then to incorporate that knowledge into curriculum

need critical evaluation of indigenous knowledge
S Africa does have challenges
w/ African renaissance  there is discussion
    of strengthening indigenous knowledge systems