In the past I have urged you to not print these notes. This time, Bill Platte and I proposed an alternative. Our proposal was rejected. Hence, I no longer have any objection if you choose to print this document. Indeed, there may be benefits to you :
-- if there is not enough paper, it will be impossible to print the global studies exam, so you will not have to study for it
-- many students will be trying to print final papers; print yours early and you will get a better grade than those who cannot print

our globe
Global Studies Notes, 4
Fred Hansen, Winter, 2005
Notes, Part 1
Notes, Part 2
Notes, Part 3

  • These lectures were conducted at Semester at Sea, Winter, 2005, by Prof. Robert Fessler, Global Studies Coordinator. This section covers the period from Cape Town to Florida.
  • Most of these notes were entered in real time during the lecture.
    Beware: I get things wrong.
  • Personal comments are usually enclosed in {...}

Saturday, March 26
cap Fessler: Remember that exam is tomorrow. Go to the same rooms.

David Fennema, Theater in Africa
African theater is a raw topic, problems in considering
Europeans thought there was no theater. They forced European theater on Africans.

Actually there was exciting theater in Africa:
    festivals, religious celebrations, and on and on
over 800 languages in Africa
    so huge task to consider all of theater
    hard to understand what is said, let alone what it means
    (and most languages have no written form)
by 1900 Europeans had divided the continent
    lasted until 1960
Africans adapted European theater concepts into their own rituals
hid their belief systems within outwardly European forms
missionaries have told tribes they had to abandon traditional lives
    so tribes created new masks and rituals to hide their true belief system
(similarly in Salvador and South America)
Basic languages: French, English
    African playwrights have been forced
        (in order to get international attention)
        to use these languages
focus on two cultures:
    South Africa
       two best developed theater programs
       homes of the two most famous playwrights
    often based on puberty rites - circumcision
    improvised depending on participants
audience behavior:
    in Africa, audience expected to participate
music and dance integrate strongly into all rituals

story-telling is a major point of African theater
Griot is the story-teller
    an integral part of almost all African ceremonies
Some stories can last for seven days
story-telling is often accompanied with musical instruments and singers

    most populous
    250 ethnic groups
Portugese 1472
British unified in 1914
independence in 1960

Yoruba - Egungen
    ancestor worship
    spiritual link between living and dead
    part of planting festival
    all night ceremnony the night vefore
       animal sacrifices
       address to dead in sacred robe
    on the day of the festival
       players move to house of chief
       carrier{sp?}  appears - to take away evil
17th cent. : Alaringo
     masked dance type of theater
    there was a guild of the players
       protect the secrets of the form
    almost destroyed by inter-tribal conflict in 1890s
    still popular
2nd type: story telling
    Ijo tribe, S. Nigeria
    stories w/ music
    audience expected to repeat phrases
       or respond in call-and -response
    puppetry , too
3rd type, Yoruba Opera
    combines story-telling, Egungen, and Alraingo
    first developed in 1944
    by 1947 was exteremely popular
       still popular
    opens w/ a "glee" a rousing number
    satirical story w/ dialog
    ends w/ communal glee
    always has a moral lesson
    extremely adaptable
       any stage
       any language
    lot is sung
    drumming is important
    now seen on Nigerian television

1960s saw start of English language playwriting
Wole Soyinka - most successful
    born 1934 - son of Anglican priest
    inspired by African masks and Eugungen
    1959-1960 worked in London w/ their
    founded the "1960 masks"
       they did his first play
    1964 - "The Strong Breed"
       mixes traditional and modern European themes/ideas
    1970 arrested and jailed for two years
       now politically active
    "Death and the King's Horsemen" 1975
          from Nigeria colonial history
    uses masks and history in plays
    anti-wealth, anti-power
    1986 - Nobel prize for literature
    1993 condemned as an enemy of the state
    1997 convicted and condemned as a traitor to Nigeria
    when ruler removed, Soyinka returned to Nigeria
       strongly focused on human rights

Femi Osofisan - another Nigerian playwright.
    new generation
    extremely critical of Soyinka
          S.s plays to little concerned with class & social structure
    quite popular w/ students
    struggling to make a
    "No More a Wasted Breed'
          (attacks Soy.. play

Zulu Sofola - female published playwright

theater depends on University and the state
gov't has a series of state arts councils
    disseminating info

South Africa
    story-telling, religious rituals, initiation ceremonies
    visual symbolism as well as speech
w/ luck, see Zulu initiation ceremony
       (they are now done for tourists)
1780s -first European plays in South Africa
some plays from England were imported
    by touring companies
british built theaters in South Africa
Afrikaaners started truly African theater
    after 1880, they began writing plays in Afrikaans
    first play dated 1897
       (first African play in English)
    produced outdoors - rural and conservative
(English rep companies - urban and liberal)
1927 - professional Afrikaans company created

1960 Apartheid in full swing
1963 - foreign playwrights began to refuse permission for their plays
1966 - Brit Equity forebade acting in S. Afr.
1963 performing arts councils established
    fostered plays, built theaters
four Afrikaans playwrights: Smit, DuPlessis, Pieter-Dirk Uys
    Uys developed character "Evita" who was transvestite (ala Dame Edna)
          by 1994  was on television
          now teaching about AIDS

Black plays and playwrights in S. Afr.
outside the European system - no subsidies
first black play, 1927, Xhosa   "Babesas Baboons"
    1935 first black play published
1927 first company "Lucky Stars" Zulu
    teach Zulus

1959 new form - township musical
    first was "King Kong", 1959
          bio of a heavyweight boxing champ
    fusion of township music
    1961 - new theater built - blacks and shites
          Athol Fugard began there
1970 - black theater very political
    PET - People's Experimental Therater 1973
1st black female playwright
    Fatima Dike
    commmisioned by Robben Island for a play
theaters mostly run by whites
    black theater community must work for white producers
1977 - interracial casts were made legal
Fugard and blacks created
    Sewi Bonzai is dead
    hero stole pass of a dead man
Barney Simon & two blacks wrote
    Woza Albert - what if Jesus came back to S. Afr.
    half a pink squash ball on nose to depict white characters
"We're beginning to get a theater which is exciting"
Serafina - now also a movie
    woman involved in Soweto riots

1984 - "Gangsters"  Maponya
    lots of adulation
    based on imprisonment and murder of Steven Biko
    requires a white character

white theater in S Afr
    Athol Fugard is most famous
    start writing in 1959
    1961 - "The Blood Knot"
       two brothers with different fathers
          one black, the other mixed race
    1982 - "Master Harold and the Boys"
       white boy brought up by black men
    1989 "My Children, my Africa"
    1997 "The Captain's Tiger"

S Afr had arts councils in the states
    build theaters
    develop artists
    1987 - blacks allowed to serve on councils

AIDS is currently a major topic
puppet theater is successful
Universities are teaching indigenous therater now
language is still amjor probelm
    11 official languages in S Afr
    so dance is becoming a major part of theater
major problems: what is theater

Fennema interested in masks
here are some:
    beaded mask - tourist - no major significance
    death masks - for young boys about to be circumcized
          childhood is dying; man is being born
          rahter plain masks
    striated - from Congo
    fertility mask from Ivory Coast
       horns for fertility
       bird at crown -ultimate symbol of fertility

{Fred's Summary:
    African plays were open air, improvisational, usually had story-tellers
       they were usually situational, i.e., part of a specific rite or annual event
             birth, circumcision, wedding, death, solstice, sowing, reaping, ...
    Westerners came and introduced theater as weekly or periodic entertainment
          established theaters, authored some plays
    In post-colonial times, an African commercial theater is evolving
          vocal young playwrights are insisting that theater should
            serve political ends as well as entertainment
    languages are a problem, so song and dance are common
       similar to Bollywood
    names to remember:
        Wole Soyinka, Yoruba Opera, Pieter-Dirk Uys (& "Evita"), Athol Fugard

Saturday, April 2

Today: People who have worked in Africa.

Mary Magoulik - Senegal
democracy, not a bad country, good AIDS, good education
she worked on education
    visited schools and worked with teachers
Taranga - national spirit - friendly, welcoming
    ask directions, get taken to place

Kevin - Mauritania 2002-2004
Islamic republic
    3 mil people
community business projects
    micro finance
mix of cultures
    black africans
Saharan - hot, sandy, barren
host mother from Senegal
    father from Mauritania
5 cultures - mixed

Marjorie Seawell
went on semester at sea
    quit job
    working in Africa on AIDS
Worked for ICA
    500 villages
taught for a month in small village in Zambia
    poorest area in a poor country
    HIV/AIDS officially 27% - informally 75%
got to know AIDS patients as friends
spent two weeks in Rwanda
    Clinton foundation
          getting anti-retroviral crugs to Africa
    leadership training program
    visited president and his family
          heard of the many issues
             and history of the genocide

Joseph Croskey - Tanzania

    far west in Tanzania
    little electrification
    really welcoming people
AIDS rates high - 30% of those few tested

Fessler: Speak of changes seen over time and differences from places ship has visited

Joseph. Dar Es Salam - normal city
       Zanzibar - muslim city, developing well
in the area they work, little transportation
    coffeee markets have declined
vendors in tourist areas come from other countries

ship people are celebrities
 in mauritania - celebrity since they don't expect strangers, esp. white
did projects on developing tourism
    not demo like the Masai - just want visitors to hang out

Mary - struck by similarities
    diff: West africa by the french
       east afr by the british
from bus window, people carry big loads on head
    easily see in Senegal
in Senegal she shopped at those shops, not just looked at them
she had running water and electricity, others did not
Dakar - very cosmopolitan
    some people lived in mansions
she lived in Senegal 17 years ago
    Kenya not much different
    Cape Town not like other

    in Zambia doing a low tech program of teaching
 truck with four balc tires
    10-12 flat tires in first week
    bought retreaded tires
drove 1.5 miles to neighboring village
haul lunch braziers, and rest of lunch
had to learn how to be patient
    program planned for 9AM would start at 11 or so
roof leaked in schooll
    dirt floor
instead of the material things,
    they had real spirit of cooperation
    they had one cell phone, but no one to call
    send kids to next village with messages
community sense of helpfulness
she was a labor and delivery nurse
    kept putting it off
    met a colleague at a cocktail party
       got recruited into the program
if you are interested in something, hold that passion
    something wil work out

Fessler: What do you see for the future of Africa?

Marjorie - met w/ NGOs in Tanzaniya
    the future is the young committed Africans
    many educated outside and have come home
            w/ determination to make a difference
    outside NGOs are targetting AIDS in Africa
       but it is the local people who will make the difference

    talked politics w. the guys in Mauritania
          (they talk politics a lot)
    the guys expected lots of fighting
       where the borders drawn
       white moor are in power
       leader in power for 20 yrs
             military coupe
host family doesn't care about fighting
       mostly concerned with survival
everyone blames gov't for all problems
    gov't wasting money on their own lavish expenses
In S. SAfrica: they gotten over gov't blaming
    worry about gangs in townships, not gov't
    politics? makumba matata

    answers from within countries are a good step
    internal FGM programs have more success than outsiders
education is important

    when education goes back into community, it really helps
he knew a metalworker highly motivated to teach his skills to others
the program he is on tries to help at the community level
    contracts with beneficiaries so they stay after getting hgelp
they work w/ NGOs
helping grass roots organizations
    one guy helping to add value to their products
    eg. how to dry bananas
    how to save power and not tear down trees

    in Rwanda - fields of white flowers and drying sheds
          it's a new industry - pyrethrum - insecticide
    sign: "Use treated mosquito nets"
       {I think pyrethrum is a repellant, not an insecticide.}

Fessler: Audience questions?

how educate on HIV/AIDS in Africa?
Marjorie: they have done a good job on school children
       even to the village levels
however, actually using condoms is another thing
    "Why have a sweet with the wrapper still on?"
tranactional sex workers - truck stop
    five to eight times as much pay if condom-free
    hard to worry about AIDS if the children are hungry
traditional healers use the same razor blade on everyone
    now trying to get everyone to own their own blades
healers claim that sex w/ virgin cures AIDS
    many children raped
culture changes needed, but whites can't do it

day to day
    prime minister substituted
    building orphanage
Linda discovered lack of AIDS education
    developed booklet withlocal help
it takes time to get to know people
    and work on things that can help them
moving from bringing in reqources to build orphanage
    instead getting to know people and find out what they need

Mary: important to get to know people and find out their needs
peace corps does figure out ahead of time what is needed
first 10 weeks are in-country training
    learn languages
    learn how to eat
       Senegal - eat from common bowl
                ball up your rice
be adaptable
    be willing to change your job as needs arise
she was supposed to do in-service training
    didn't work too well
instead she asked what they wanted
        they usually just asked Mary to teach for a day

How do work without inmposing values:
    they've been coping for 1000's of years
in Tanzania, they've been dealing w/ orphans
    traditionally place child with some other family
Africans have ideas, but don't have resources
    eg, brick making w/ less energy needs a big machine
they are using Western resources w/ African thought

    so many examples of intervention causing problems
communication is key
    establish what is best for the community
if they expect external solution,
    the locals will not work to solve their own problems

    Kevin's story about a well
well is a community gathering
but western-style public water systems  can
            destroy community communication


Sunday, April 3

Fessler: no classes tomorrow. Then start in on Brazil and Latin America.

Today: Dr. Gustavo Jorge Goni (gon-ye) from NOAA
Observing the Oceans from Semester at Sea's MV Explorer
    Why we spend time and your money studying the oceans

NOAA is part of the Department of Commerce
{I see three broad areas in Dept. Commerce
            (adapted from
business development
Economic Development Administration (EDA)     
Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)     
Manufacturing and Services
Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA)
international trade
Export Administration
Market Access and Compliance
Import Administration
Trade Promotion
United States Foreign
and Commercial Service
science in service to business
Bureau of the Census     
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
Patent and Trademark Office (PTO)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST
National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
Office of Technology Policy (OTP)


NOAA: oceans, weather, climate, hurricanes, science
Gustavo works for
    Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorologic Laboratory (Miami, FL)

Ocean studies have always been vital
    fishing - food

Old time observing the ocean

First global ocean survey
led by Charles Wyville Thompson
Thompson's route
study of
       temperature salinity
       samples from ocean bottom
       discovered mariannas trench
    (he avoided North Pacific, unlike you)
    crossed from Cape Town to salvador, 200 years ago
    identified the gulf stream
        "a river of warm water within the ocean"
Thompson's map of GFulf stream

Gulf stream  as we see it today
Today's gulf stream imagery
    this is a sea surface temperature map, from satellite
    red for high temperature
    blue is the cooler Labrador current

oceanographic data is hard to represent w/ equation and model
eg, objective: how much water goes toward Europe?
Canada colder than Sweden
    Europe warmer because of Gulf Stream
    heat and moisture from ocean

Here is where we are looking at the ocean today:
points where ocean is being oserved
    platforms, buoys, research vessels, drifters, ...
    satellite to measure sea height
        warmer water is bigger (less dense) and the sea becomes higher
        from 100 km above earth : ocean height to accuracy of 2 cm
    yellow is big buoys anchored to the ocean bed
        currents, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ...
        anchored w/ wire no thicker than finger
        water depth in multiple km

Oceanography is very expensive
    use "ships of opportunity"
        to deploy instrumentation
    cargo ships, passenger ships, ... SemesterAtSea

Two topics
    I. Why do we study the ocean?
    II. How do we observe the ocean?

I. Why do we study the ocean?
Why Study Oceans: Currents
The global conveyor belt
major flow of currents
    cold water sinks in North Atlantic
    cold current south through bottom of Atlantic
    flow around Cape of Good Hope
        north to India
           warms and goes south
           joins eastbound warm currrent 
        south around Australia
           north through Pacfic
           down west coast of North America
           back past Singapore
           join east bound warm current
    beastbound past Cape of Good Hope
    to North Atlantic
full cycle takes about a thousand years

(another map)
There are smaller cyclic loops within  each ocean
    blue waters: warm
    dark waters: cold

(maps of currents around Cape of Good Hope)
(map of March 20 ocean currents)
important current east of Africa: Agulhas
    Indian Ocean to Atlantic
    shedding rings from Indian Ocean into Atlantic
       although in Atlantic,
           we will be sailing on Indian Ocean water

Why Study Oceans: Navigation
Consider a voyage from Portugal to North Carolina
    (assume speed of 2 knts in still water)
route nautical miles
great circle
southeast then straight across
    The great circle route is shorter,
    but the other route is faster
    because currents are more ffavorable

Why Study Oceans: climate
The interaction of ocean and atmosphere
drives weather patterns
and controls climate variability.

    el niño and la niña

upper levels of ocean have more heat than all of the atmosphere
ocean pumps heat into atmosphere

Why Study Oceans: El Niño-La Niña forecasting
    we are used to daily cycles and annual cycles
    But there are longer term cycles: 10, 15, 20 years
    el niño
            warm water from asia to S. Amer.
            disrupts all weather patterns
                   and fishing
    la niña
            cooling of waters from asia to S. Amer.

(map of progress of an el nino (1997))
1997 argest el niño
    never before such a large amount of water warming up
changed wind patterns
    global weather effects
(map of where the weather was affected)

Negative impacts of el niño are well known
Northwestern North America: Flooding, mudslides
Eastern United States: Downpours cause death, property damage
Pacific: 6  Tropical cyclones
Eastern Brazil: Fish industry devastated
Western South America: Floods, Landslides
South Africa: Drought, disease, malnutrition
India and north: Drought, fresh water shortages
Western Pacific: Coral reefs die
Indonesia: Crops  fail, starvation follows
Australia: Drought, and bush fires
There were positive impacts
Gulf of Alaska - Improved salmon fisheries due to increased juvenile survival.
Arizona - Desert gets more rainfall than usual - flora and fauna thrive.
California - Surf’s up, as sea levels are up by as much as six inches.  Better surfing and sport fishing. Kansas - Plenty of summer rain produces bountiful harvests and fills emergency silos.  “Tornado Alley” shuts down.
Atlantic Coast of U.S. - A mild hurricane season after a disastrous 1996.
Southern Rocky Mountains - Plenty of snow forecast for this winter, water storage is up and so are tourist dollars

Forecasting has benefits

Why study oceans: hurricane forecasting

(map: tracks of hurricanes, 1993- 2000)
    some years more huricanes than others
    La Niña - more hurricanes
2005 may be normal or La Niña
    more hurricanes

Why study oceans: tropical cyclone forecasting
(map suggesting that cyclones form in the Atlantic off the Caribbean
and then intensify as they cross the pacific)
7 world regions w/ tropical cyclones
       (aka huricanes or typhoons)
waters > 26 C
if hurricane on top of warm water
    hurricane intensifies

(map showing hurricanes Opal(1995) Bret (1999)
    went over warm features in Gulf of Mexico
     became cat 5 winds almost 200 mph

Gulf of mexico at start of hurricane
gulf of Mexico at start of a hurricane

After the hurricane has passed, the water has cooled
gulf after hurricane has passed

Why study oceans: Fisheries management
(map of ocean off portugal)
    if wind goes south,
    cold water rises
    brings high nutrient cold water
    so they can go fishing
in old days, fisherman used rules of thumb
    now they read maps

Why study oceans: Marine mammal research
There are fronts in ocean just as in atmosphere
    swordfish prefer to be in an area between fronts

Why study oceans: Oil exploration, offshore industries
  oil rigs in Carribean have to be unhooked as rings of current go by

Why study oceans: Recreation, sailing, navigation
    some sail around the world

Why study oceans: ocean spill tracking and debris tracking

Why study oceans: global sea level rise
    going up some places, down others
    (graphs of height at six locations)
The overall daily change in sea height over 8 years:
 annual delta in average ocean height
upward approx 2 cm/decade
    Is this important?  unknown

Why study oceans:
    Search and rescue operations
    Tides, port operations
    Coral reef research

II. How are studying the oceans?
Two ways:
       many tools
    computational models
        still in early stages

How study oceans:
    (repeat map of observation tools)
          lots of pirates off E Africa
       height, color (~ chlorophyll)
       9 ft long
    airplane deployment
       2-3 days work = months at sea
       P3 - hurricane chaser planes
    now developing submersibles
          can send anywhere by radio control
          usually international cooperation
How study oceans: Coastal stations
     tide guages
           (map of gauges, 000s)
How study oceans:  research cruises
           every ten years
           12 hour shifts
           all sorts of ocean conditions
           (Molly deploying bottles at different depths)
              6-7 hours work  for 5 km depth
How study oceans:     surface drifters
    measure sea current in real time
          battery and antenna
          stay in ocean 4-5 yrs
          we can follow trajectory of drifters
                sometimes I95, I10, ... (someone took it home)

(map of drifter launches)
    big gap where Explorer is going
now about 1200 drifters deployed
aboard MV Explorer, we will deploy next to sign saying
       "please do not throw obects overboard"

example drifter chart
route of a drifter
    2 yrs to circle antartica
    then 4 years to get to Australia and Pacific
(map of all drifter plots)

(map of S Atlantic)
    we can go and look at color to see if Atlantic or Indian Ocean water
       black is Atlantic, blue is Indian ocean
    2-3 years for ring to cross South Atlantic

Profiling floats
    launched within its box
    harness released
    sink to 1000 m
    stay at depth 10 days
    rise and measure temperature, salinity, pressure
        send info to satellites
    stays on surface for a couple of days
    Repeats cycle
    lasts 3-5 years. depending on battery life
    3000 already deployed
    (map of where these guys are)

locations of existing floaters
        {The Explorer route is the pink line. Black dots are deployments.}
Note the absence of collectors along the Explorer route.

map of our route and where to deploy
    deploy on last 3-4 days of our crossing

NOAA also deploys XBTs
    looks like a small bomb
    hard to ship
    (cannot take on airplane
          looks threatening)
    2 inch diam., foot long
    sinks to 800 m,
        transmits temp from surface to 800 m
    send them on cargo ships
    they mount deploying devices on cargo ships
    computer signals when to deploy
    (map of where deployed)
    (graphs of temperature at for latitiude and depth)
temperature vs latitude

        example of frontal area

Royal Carribean Cruise Lines
    caught throwing trash overboard
    community service "sentence: "
       now deploy XBTs
going through Carribean
    important since it is
    the origin of Gulf Stream

How Observing
    satellites to measure
    (map of Caribbean in 2003)

Numerical models
    Agulhas current

    numerically generated animation of currents off Good Hope
            like oil and water
                different temperatures don't easily mix

For More
    see Gustavo in 3014 for CD with presentation

"How inappropriate to call this planet Earth, when it is clearly Ocean."
    Arthur C. Clarke

{Oceanography is mostly all wet. Not a dry eye in the house. }

Here are Gustavo's notes on how to follow the gadgets we deployed:
Surface drifters measure surface currents, temperature, and barometric pressure.
Profiling floats report depth profiles of temperature and salinity every ten days.
when deployed
where deployed
drifter float
April 5 - 6 PM
24° 45S; 07° 55W 15937 387
April 6 - 5 PM
22° 9S; 14°58W 15938 362
April 7 - 7 AM
20° 29S; 19° 25W 15939 380
April 7 - 5 PM
19° 14S; 22° 43W 15940 386
April 8 - 00 AM
18° 08S; 25° 41W 15941 388
April 8 - 7 AM
16° 53S; 28° 55W 15942 360

To follow the drifters go to:
Select the South Atlantic in the small global map below. Click the WMO box.
To follow the floats go to:
click “operations”, click “trajectories” and enter ID (WMO)#

    Gustavo Goni   
        4301 Rickenbacker Causeway
        Miami, FL33139, USA
    (305) 361-4339  fax: (305) 361-4412

Tuesday, April 5

Fessler: Announcements
    Barry Ames, interport lecturer for Brazil
       partner Susan and daughter Olivia
    if signed up to deploy equipment: room 9 at 5PM
    study guide for final exam is on cojrse information folder
    study group reumes tomorrow at 3:15

words from african langauges

English is a hybrid language
liberally sprinkled with words from other languages
our culture is also shot through with outside influences
cherished American symbols
    cowboys and Indians
       Europeans came to US with cows
       kept in village green
       African slaves were the ones who suggested
             not fencing in the cows
             Africans graze cows all over the place
       first cattle managers were Africans
Africa had profound influence on cultures throughout the Americas
the cultures in the Americas formed only 400-500 yrs ago
    Europeans arrived with world view different from Europe
    third fundamentally different world view arrived: slaves from Africa

three-way interaction
brand new culture emerged
       (like Swahili culture)
actually a variety of hybrid cultures
in Carribean, the indigenous people were wiped out
so indigenous cdulture had little impact
in Brazil, the indigenous cultures and people did survive
and European world views did differ somewhat from coun try to country

each place in America a slightly different mix of cultures
from where in Europe
percentage survival of indigenous people
    Cuba - Spanish
    Haiti - French
    Brazil - Portugese
In Bahia, Africans outnumber Europeans 4 to 1
In US, 500,000 slaves was a big percentage of population
    S.Carolina   14000 European,  35000 African slaves
10-1 in Haiti (Afr to French)
Black African influence was pervasive
The slaves from African brought their world view

Salvador is more African than Cape Town
"The real voyage of discovery exists in not in new landscapes, but in having new eyes." Proust

Refers to picture in field office
women w/ turbans and beads
but what does it mean

Want us to see with new eyes
start today
text says 70% of Brazilians are Roman Catholic
    Europeans did bring Catholicism

Bandawe talked about systems of values
    create psych based on African world views
      (remember modern soc have scientific explanation
             traditional societies have spiritual explanations)

The traditional African belief system is that you should live in harmony with the universe
bad events occur as a result of loss of harmony
must live in tune with the universe
universe created by a single creator (monotheistic)
in African system, the one god is remote
    must go thru intermediaries -"spirits"
    they will get the message thru to the creator
    there are ancestor spirits
    there are nature spirits
religion gives the solace that there are ways to deal with evils (ie, disharmony)
    talk through spirits

consider Brazilian histrory
1500  13 Portugese ships under Cabral
             landed in Brazil
             claimed land for Portugal
settlers arrived; made plantations
    tried using indigenous people
          small groups of hunters and gatherers
          didn't understand working all day
    enslaved the indigenous
       they died off
Portugese resorted to the slave trade
1550 began importing slaves from Africa
more than 3.5 mil Africans brought to Brazil
       slaves were prisoners of war or conquered peoples
       whole villages shipped off
             elders, priests, healers, elders, young,
       included people who knew the culture
             oral history and \learning
captured slaves ripped from homelands and possessions
    BUT they carried their world view and their culture

Portugese put them to work
       housed in slave quarters
       not managed in slave quarters
       so slave quarters became like small African villages
    place for rituals
    gathered herbs
but Europeans did try to disrupt by
    mixing slaves from different tribes, cultures,...
still able to have African culture because Africans shared a world view

many major slave revolts did occur
in Haiti slaves revolted and set up a black republic
in Brazil, slaves escaped
       (that's why there were so many brought)
    easy to avoid recapture (unlike, say, Cuba)
    entered rainforest
          intermixed w/ indigenous
          or with other escaped slaves
at one time 20,000 slaves formed an independent state
    led by slave who had been a king in Africa
    guerilla warfare against Portugese for 50 years

slave quarters evolved to be increasingly African
    rituals for offerings to spirits, etc
    priests and healers were there to help
    helped keep society psychologically healthy (more or less)
Orixas (or-ee-shas)
       various spritis
       there were lots of stories about them
          everyone learned (just as we learned nursery rhymes)
    each had a personality and various preferences, and taboos
    to please an orixa, need to know its preferencs and taboos
orixas for various wants: crops, health, ...
somewhat similar to pantheon of Greek gods and godesses

it was believed that each person had two personal orixas
    one dominant and one hidden
    at age 12-13, a priest or priestess would idnetify your orixas
          one usually obvious
          the other hidden:
this is a personality theory;
    why you are the way you are
    (not a Western theory, but a perfectly good theory)
    in this theory, you should behave like your orixas
       to not do so is to create disharmony
problems occur if you have displeased your orixas
    change behavior
    the priests are (really) mental health workers
    change behavior to moderate and beneficial
making everyone follow is a community good
there were community rituals in the slave quarters
    nightly or at least several times a week

in some rituals orixas were invited to visit
    to enter the bodies of people in  the community
    -> spirit possession rituals
    different drum rhythyms
    trance after several hours of dance
          allow orixa to inabit body
    "massive dissociation" in Western view
    "healing" in African view
once inhabited by orixa, people can talk to the orixa
    offering to embodied orixa is more satisfying than to a disembodied
people had strong peer support for good mental health

the Portugese eventually wanted to stop this
    when they saw slaves giving offerings to spirits
    when they saw possession
    looked too much like witchcraft
so the Protugese tried to force abandonment of African culture
As Portugese worked to impose Catholicism, Africans looked at it
Catholicism looked familiar to the slaves
    there was one god
    there were intermediaries (saints, not orixas)
the slaves began to put up pictures and statues of saints
    each saint became a substitute for and orixa
    the Portugese believed the slaves were being converted
this went on for generations
    eventually the African and Catholic merged
    a new religious tradition sprang up
    candomble (con-dom-bley)
    genuinely mixed, no longer separable
orixas and saints both on altar
saturday night animal sacrifice, then go to Sunday morning service

so Brazil at 70% Roman Catholic is not really accurate

Cuba - Santorea
Haiti - voodoo
       (our reaction is based on racist movies of the 30's and 40's)
US - gullah in S. Carolina

Salvador : Condomble

the picture in the field office
women in white, white rubans
beads around neck:
    favorite colors of their orixas

such women are street vendors in  Salvador
    selling snacks
    if you buy the snack, you are making an offering to her orixa
favorite days of some orixas are legal holidays
    omanja - orixa for sea - holiday
market in Salvador
    (whole new kinds of trinkets)
    you'll see stalls sellingpotions andpictures of the orixas

there is a field trip to a torero
    no possession cemerony, but orixa
there are possession ceremonies almost daily
    not tourist things, but you can watch
can get a reading from a priestess
    you will learn your two orixas

Fesslers went to see condomble preistess
asked for separate readings
Rebecca first, then Robert
mistranslation of "do you have friends at work"
    priestess had actually asked about girlfriends
he responded that, sure, he had lots of friends
priestes got stern and predicted many woes
prescription was to work with wife
        to gather ingredients and bathe in the result
    it was marriage counselling

Wednesday, April  6
Introduce Ricardo (oops, not here).

Jim Lang on Brazil

Who's in charge of the language?
Nobody. No language police.
Who's in charge of music?

In many areas of life we amy imagine police
eg race: Can we marry whoever we want.
Brazil has left usch issues to the public

First book he read
    ten keys to Latin America
           Robert J Alexander

Ten keys to Brazil
export economy
have & have nots
big development vs basic development
regional diversity
carnival & futeball   (foot-che-ball)

--Export Economy
early based on sugar cane
    big factories
          extract juice - boil, cool, big machines, big investment
    one of the first big export industries in the west
    predominntly around the city of Salvador
Brazil has always had somethin g to export
    always a wealthy place
    started with Brazil wood
          a collecting activity
    sugar cane borught the Portugese
Dutch carried sugar to Europe
1580 - king of Portugal died
    Philip in Spain took over for 60 years
    Brazil was part of Spain
Dutch were enemeies of Spain, so Portugese were too
Dutch displaced Portugese in spice trade
Dutch took over plantation area in Brazil  (1620-1650s)
Portugal finally wrested independence
    Portugal allied with the British
    1640-1940 Britain had the most influence in Brazil
Brits brought products to Brazil
Spain made money by taxing
    sugar came first to Lisbon and was taxed there
until 1763, only one royal court in all of Brazil
Spanish America had much more European infrastucture
    it was an extractive commodity (silver)
Brazil was a productive economy, less European influence needed
beyond Bay of Xxxx
       no church
       no state
       nobody "writing the script" there
    new cultural group - ~"cabouchlow"
Sao Paulo
       Portuese moved into interior
       made a new mixed culture
    enemies of Jesuits
    no control of marriage or sexuality
    banderanches (ban dey ran ches)
Bahia in backlands
       places to which slaves escaped
    marriage - no questions asked
Royal authority only in Salvador
many landholders freed slaves
lots of slaves in urban areas
    skilled labor
    filled in documents
    some bought freedom
by 1600 large class of free blacks and mulattoes not covered by slavery
in 18th century
    Minas Gereis  -  gold discovered there
    up river from Sao paolo
    1 mil
80% of gold in Europe in 19th century
       was from Brazil
miners took slaves to gold fields
    agreements w/ slaves: if find gold, they will be freed
1750 census
    people of color half and half slave/free
Portugese officials complained that colored people had postions expected to be white
Inquisition found that everybody was suspect
       mixed blood
    city fathers sent the Inquisition packing

in 19th century
Brazil was a racially mixed society
    nobody to say they couldn't
    fait accompli
religion, music, race mixing
    all done as they liked

a history of Brazil:
    how Brazil came to be the way they are
racial history pro or con, but inescapable
1800: 3 mil
    .5 mil imagining white
    others various colors

SO: export economy helped determine what
    Brazil was like
{stupid students talking too much}

why didn't Brazil break into a series of republics?
1808-1821 Rio was cnter of Portugese empire
       (forced out of Portugal by Napolean)
    Pedro II stayed until 1889 until revolt
    this kept Brazil together
    no major civil war

Dennis Waring
Cover Brazil in 1/2 hour.  Ha ha!
back to Africa
       Buntu - I am because you are

music has played a central role in the continuity of Brazilian culture
          shaped identity of the people
much of music in Latin America is shaped by Africa
styles various, innumerable kinds influenced by Africa

Latin America
    8mil sq mi
    16% of earth surface
    variety of biosphere
eco systems are ground zero of culture
(animistic approach to living)
Incas, Mayans, Aztecs, ...
    hundreds, thousands of language groups
conquistadores: missionary and greed
in US: manifest destiny

trans-atlantic triangle
today it is in cultural exchange
1. Latin America is alive and well in the USA
       (it was hispanic early in history)
       spanish spoken in every town
          even white bread New England
people in other countries object to  USA-ans calling themselves Americans
       we should say "we are citizens of USA" not "Americans"
in 19th century, great groups of Asians
Japanese in Brazil and Cuba
five culture groups in ?
    intermarriage is fifth group
       mestizo - natives married spanish
       mullato - African-European
       Africans-Brazilian natives

flutes (1000's of kinds)
rattles (maraccas indigenous)
Africans bourght dance
       unapologetic sexuality
       dance, drumming, singing, call-and-response
Europeans brought melody, harmonies, guitar
many guitar related instruments in Brazil

music as a sonic banner
    reggae - Bob Marley, rasta, ...
    music put Jamaica on the map
    rumba, cha cha cha, mamba salsa
Argentia, Mexico, Trinidad
    all of those were identifed/publicized
          by music

today: Brazil
three forms of music he will mention
(there are many other forms)
(Ricardo is a music collector
    hasv lots of old LPs  ($0.75 ea)
the three
condomble - African
    dance forms
    community based "come all ye"
    Dennis describes visit to condomble house on last voyage
       welcomed w/ mutual quiet respect
       took places on periphery
       (wear white clothing; no photographs; don't dance
          accept food offered, but avoid eating)
       trance produced drumming
       Dennis felt his (recently dead) father's presence
       in morning felt blessed, invigorated, deeply respectful of this religion
(play snippet of condemble ceremony)

capoeira    (cap-whey-rah)
    a form of martial arts
    originally a fighting defensive form of dance
    (originally: slaves not allowed to practice fighting)
    arches, spins, cartwheels
          low center of gravity
    two forms
        regional (reeg en ahl)
               energetic, spectacular
        angolan - more angolan based
    there are teachers in Connecticut
       great respnse from parents
    berimbau (beer-im-bough)
       bow, bowl, wire, washer, stick
       (Dennis demos the berimbau)

    national dance form of Brazil
          originally lower-class
    lots of kinds
       urban, rural, ...
       rural is more African
    (clip showing samba-in-a-circle)
    carnival is now trans-global
       mafia organized
             keeps well-financed
             {Dennis doen't say where those finances come from}
(drums play, choir sings)
samba lay lay, samba lay lay oh lee uh, repeat

Thursday, April 7

Fessler: Good morning everyone
music from Ricardo's band (interport student)

Jim Lang, more about Brazilian culture

other things no one in charge of
the locals took care of their own needs
(even today pharmacies have lots of herbs)

How long did wild west last in US?
        about 20 years (1870-1890)
Consider Brazil
    1540-1940 the interior took care of itself
    the "wild west" lasted four centuries

due to export economy  
    did not need to go to interior to get profit

Where is Brazil?
Whole continent of South America is to the east of US
Brazil in the middle of the Atlantic
Protugal lived well off its Brazilian

Brazil is a rich country with a lot of poor people
    why is this
sugar and tobacco were exports
look at map
NE in Brazil is Salvador
    sugar important all along the coast
    long time before Caribbean competed
    and then Brazil had gold from Minas Gerais
lot of people moved into Minas Gerais
    by 1750 as many free people of color as slaves
    by 1870 more free colored than slaves
1888 slavery abolished
    Brazilian laws chipped away at slaavery since 1830's
1840-1940 coffee was Brazil's most important export
also cotton was a big export
Britain was defending the ships to/from Brazil
even defended movement of Portugese royalty to Rio
    in 1821, King of Portugal reutrned to Portugal
          left son
7 sept 1822 - son declared independence from portual

it did not take long for Brazil to solidify as a government
in 19th century, stable
    big loans from Britain, able to pay off
Coffee inland from Sao Paolo and Rio
    connected by railroads
now in backlands of north east
    another Brazil living on its wits
late 1880s
    sociopolitical base of empire erodes
       with the decline inslavery
slavery ends because slaves were just walking away
    freeing slaves was a way to keep them working in the coffee economy
attractive to settlers from Europe
after 1880
    almost 3 mil immigrants
        by 1920 largest Japanese pop outside Japan
        Italians, Germans, Eastern Europe
in south of Brazil, never a plantation economy
       small farms
       different than north east
coffee is dominant
    gov't works to protect coffee
Brazil pretty stable
    while Spanish America was revolting
after 1890
    modernizing gov't
       disavows slavery
       disavows xxx

Brazil is sophisticated economic player
    manages to defend the price of coffee  
    buys stockpiles - releases slowly enough to maintain price
1930 Vargas challenges gov't approach
    he was a modernizer
    huge country
    vast interior
       no federal control in interior
    slowly federal gov't asserts more control over interior
    "Rebellion in the Backlands"
       defeated troops from state gov't
       federal army needed to put down revolt
the "other Brazil" is now in the cities
    often two simultaneous traditions

returning to big Brazil
    Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    Brazil > Spain 
    B > Mexico
    B > Argentina
    B > Canada
    B > Australia
    B > India
B is eighth largest economy in the world
       US, China, France, Britain, Germany, Japan, ???? 
territory: Brazail 5th largest
population: 6th (175 mil)
    by Asian standards, nobody lives in Brazil
Country has gone through a demographic transition
fertility rate: # kids per woman
1980 - fert rate 3.5
now - 2.2  similar to US
1985  - very young country xx% under age 15
    now only 29% under age of 15

have talked about
export econ
regional diversity
    SaoPaolo is hub of economy
high infant mortality 35;  US is 7; mexico is 25
    mostly from poor regions
northeast 75 mil
south east 50? mil
 south 25 mil
center, west, and amazon: 15% population; 60% of territory

Brasilia.  built in 1950s new capitol
moved center of gravity off the coast, into interior
soy bean production. among top three (w/ China and US)

produces xx mil automobiles / yr
export jet aircraft
a leading producer of shoes, textiles
    electrical equipment
great food producer and processor
    more OJ and sugar cane than any whereelse
       coffee, soybeans
    more rice than any onther countires in ammericass

rich country the sizae of spain
    inside a poor country
tremoendous income disparity
richest 20% get 60% of income

Brazil GDP $800 bil
    US GDP $10 trill
    Indian GDP $700 bil

so how come US has 16% of children living below poverty line
income distribution in US
    richest 20% earns 48% of contries income
    was 41% in 1980
richest 10% vs poorest, US has the worst disparity of any develped country

so how can Brazil have such income disparity?
military gov't 1964
    in charge for 20 yrs
    wanted modern industrial nation
          did it, but left problems
agriculture - billions in agri loans
    for export crops
       soy bean production expansion
       loans to big farmers
       but the interest was far less than  the rate of inflation
    vast majority to farms > 100 hectares (big)
    mechanized - needed fewer workers/share croppers
1960 mechanization 100 in 1965,  500 in 1980
from 65 to 80 became an urban nation
    from 1/3-2/3 switched to 2/3-1/3
    folks from rural areas moved to cities
rurals now in cities were uneducated
    fertile for new religions
          growth of evangelicals
    not much medicine in rural areas
consider industries fostered by military regime
    technically sophisticed industries:
       1967-1973 big agriculture
       transprotation eqp't 22% annual incr   8% employ incr
        chem products 7.6%    1% employ incr
       electrical boomed, but only hired 7% more people
all major cities became surrounded by favellas (slums)
    100 enter 1swt grade
    50 in second
    25 in fifth grade
60% of pop has less than 6th grade

    100 enter 1st grade
    84 in 2nd grade
    78 in 5th grade
pop. overwhelm capability to educate
educate paid for by mnicipalities
problem is more educ than racism
how can you learn to use computers?

Braizil  not as good as Indoensia, Mexico
many Brazilian schools have two shifts
    teachers not well paid
Brazil has started to address education

the income disparity is linked to development model they chose
need to develop at the base of the economy instead of at the top
(US could use development at the base itself)

Brazils economy entered problems in 1970s
    energy crisis then
    Brazil had build (and now has) excllent highways
    can take a bus anywhere in the country (except Manaus)
example of oil price hike in 70's
    1972 $376 mil  $3.5/barrel
    1979 $50 bil      $31/barrel
(being oil dependent you can get screwed and screwed very fast)

Brazil has never declared abnkruptcy (un like other Latin American coujntries)
Brazil has adapted to oil
    substitute ethanol for oil
     20% of gasoline is ethanol fromm sugar cane
    now building engines that run on pure alcohol
Brazil first country to insist that cars built in Brazil
       had to be made of 90% Brazilian parts
          not many Japanese cars (Japanese manufacturers
1990 4 mil alcohol automobiles
Petrobras has discovered lots of oil in Brazil
    so lots of flexibility in
1979 1 bill gal /alcohol
1990 2 bill

loaned lots of money to big distillers
       low interest
       three yr grace period
    so public paid for the development program
now they have hybrid cars that burn either oil or gasoline
alcohol burns cleaner

sugar make kashasa
    but also makes the alcohol fuel
can burn cane stalks to fire the engines to distill the sugar into alcohol

newest project
    marmona nut - oil that substitutes for diesel fuel
Petrobras is largest corporation based in South America

other keys to Brazil:

HOW to keep a country together
        suppose you have an urban underclass
--soccer is one way to keep the country united
    attend a game: $1 in grandstand
--carnival is a unifying event
    a four day party
    lots of employment
          spend $1 mil / float
--music also "crosses the street"
    songs and concerts cross generations
--novellas on TV
    there are only four channels in Brazil
    "Global Channel" has best novellas 6:30 PM - 10:30 PM
          70% of population watches them
          good things happen in novellas
             crooks get caught
             bad guy goes straight
             big inheritances
          high quality
    "the relative of a relative is a relative"
    eat together often

so Brazil is not such a categorical country
can switch categories in Brazil
    a transexual is a host of a children's show

tomorrow is Friday -- payday {whatever that means}

Friday, April 8

Prof. Barry Ames, interport lecturer for Brazil
at 4:30 in Purser Square he and others
        will meet any students who want travel tips on Rio

one transparency:
clientelism - patronage
ISI : import substitution industrialization
populism; Vargas; Peron; Kbitsch; Goulart

Brazilians say Brazil is goign to be a great country and always will be
you cannot think of Brazil itself. Latin America as a whole is behind where it "should" be
traditional explanation: Brits bad, Spanish bad
recent explanation
firwst root
    in colonial period: different patterns of land owning
          Latin America farmed in plantations
                land was good; easy to farm
          New England hard to farm; lots of family farms
    enormous inequality started and perservered
    the poor in Latin America were never a viable market
          in USA, the lesser disparity in income made for much larger markets

there were plantations in USA South
    and it is closer to Latin America with its same woes

second root - abse3nce of attention to education
    in USA great support for education
       elites wanted it, too
    in Latin America, why educate?
          if educated theyh will be less willing to work
       European land owners sent their kids to Europe for education

    every study shows that education has an enormous return
       and Latin Amercia failed to invest
given the weakness of social infrastructure
    the "state" became an economic prize
       by taking control of gov't you could be sure of wealth
    machismo, powe, violence
       in a weak economy control is a wealth
    bureaucrarcy will be oppressive or absent

in Latin America
    clientelism - patronage
        "patramonial state"
        control through doling out tidbits
              loyalty in return
patrao (patron) controls resources
gets adapted into democratic system
    Daley in Chicago, Tammany Hall in NY
consequence of rigid state
    starts from a rural economy

Brazil peculiar in being very large
    Brazil, Mexico, Argentina
            largest, and all federal  countires
    Mexico less so
    Brazil still very federal
    military tends to be centralising
          civilians decentralizing

let's talk aboutt political history
    mostly since 1947

start in 1930s
    gold and rubber are done
    sugar and coffee are main crops
          sugar in decline
    sugar is annual
       as price declines, can plant less
    coffee is a tree
       takes a few years to start and goes for a few years
       cannot just cut back
       cannot react to price fluctuations
    Brazilian states tried to control by buying stocks of coffee
       growers demanded that state buy the coffee they produced
       growers forced devaluation of local currency
       importers did badly; exporters did well
with devaluation, Brazil started making things for themselves
    urban consumers suffered
    but it was the beginnningsw of industiralization
    Sao Paolo became a center of industrialization
       wealth of coffee moved into industrialization
       a response to the depression

industry starts to create a bigger middle class
    demand urban services and education
    Argentina and Chile started earlier than Brazil

industrialization leads to political breakdown

1930s President Julio Vargas
    from a big state (which?)
he became a fascist dictator
    mild fascism
began to try economic modernization
military came back from WWII
       they had fought for democracy and wanted it in Brazil
Vargas created political parties
    from top down
    one rural, one urban
    preempted things like growth of labor unions

corporatist mentality
    control by the state of groups that might themselves organize
Brazil has emerged from this in last 15 yrs

after Vargas they had elections
    only literates could vote
             many did not

two processes
   1 urbanization
   2 ISI - import substitution industiralization
          make instead of buy
          do not import
          abandon export-heavy approach
       take over businesses run by foreigners
             eg, Light, the electric compnay
       elites believed private busines could not industrialize on its own
          so gov't control of many industries

Brazil is more urban than USA
    as a result of ISI
    there is nothing in the rural areas
       no schools, jobs, etc.
    city offers hope
    landowners mechanize and need fewer people
urbanization happens all over Latin America
problem: not enough jobs in cities
    in USA there were city jobs
       wages stayed good because people could move to the frontier
    but w/ peole moving to cities, wages stayed low

Ames disagrees w/ economists
    he thinks Brazil should be building cars as Ford did,
       use lots of employees
    but Brazil has mostly modern factories
          lessened need for employees
so people that move to cities have to live in Favella
    squatter settlement
    an adaptation to ISI

do not visit favella today
    drugs, violence
    local mafias
older favellas have become

thrid key concept
    Reagan believes you can cut taxes and get more money
    belief that everybody can do better
    inevitably in Latin America
          inflation, then coolapse
    short term satisfy people
    like clientelism
William Jennings Bryan was populist
       southern and western farmers
in Latin Am, populism is an urban phenomena
    workers and their bosses support populism
       both want tariffs
       want protection
(Japan and Asia started under protection and then stopped protection)

populism : Peron, Cardenas, Batista
1951 Vargas re-elected as a populist

Kubitchek, populist
    good president
1964 (remember this) : military coupe
the populism collapsed
March 31st - April 1, 1964  
       why? maybe USA wanted it
       maybe militasry unhappy
          civ gov't was messed up
    Goulart was president
        weak, dominated by brother
       maybe because non-coms tried to take over
       military had to put down demonstrations
       elite paranoid about communists
       economic problems
             120% per year
       (in 1985, 2000% inflation, 1%/day)
       OR crisis in ISI model (Ames no longer believes)
          military rules for a long time
             generals all over the ministries
          you could not do more with ISI without military gov't
          go up scale: beer, food, steel, chemicals, ...
               fewer employees per business
                need lots of capital
                   need low wages
           but democratic gov't can't keep wages low
       but Ames says, this route was not necessary
          maybe a democratic gov't would have followed same path
Ames explanation
    gov't stupidity
    deadlock in congress
    moderates on each side
        thought the extremists on the other side would take over
right wing conswervatives thought they would take over. Nope
military came in and staye4d for 20 years
    they had good education
    illusions about how simple ruling was going to be
    but military is multiple groups
first Castllo Bianco
    little growth not much repression
    things stabilized
1968 election, new military gov't
    1968-1973 Milagre (miracle) (annual growth of 10%)
                {10% for 5 years is 61% total)
          still ISI
    congress is shut down
    military cracks down
anti-politic approach
    (a characteristic of Bureaucratic-Authoritarian gov't)
repression of wage growth
many leaders in jail or exile
big-scale economic development

1973- oil shock
1975 oil import bill equal to all exports   ($10 bil)
       so unable to import anything
1973 new president: Ernesto Geissel 74-79
    believed you could have democracy
       withdraw wilitary gradually from power
    where to get money: from the Arab states
          the Arabs had only a limited capacity to use money
                it went into savings
       Brazil stepped up to say they would borrow
       but floating interest rate
    big hydro at Iguassu,  steel, ..
    Brazil did a lot
    (other countries invested in Miami real estate)
Brazil avoided a social crisis
election of 1974 without gov't interference
    Geissel thought people would be gratefully
    actually military lost heavily
          lost because people were not satisfied w/econ growth
                did not like repression
                military never legitimatized themselves
                had to beat on populace in order to hold power
    election was a shock
terrorism was gone. military had done that
civil religion was against the military repression
"abertua" "opening"
military easing out

1979 - second oil shock
also interest rates went incredibly high (20% in USA)
Brazil had borrowed at 5%, but now had to capitalize payments
       increasing debt
       loans became non-performing
    October election
    Brazilian finance minister annonced that Brazil was out of money
          this was the end of the military period
       IMF was calling the shots to some extent
newpaper headline
        casuisu - casuistry - sophistry
    the military playing tricks to try to keep power
       split states to get more power
       merge states controlled by opposition
    bionicles - extra senator appointed from each state

1985 huge movement for direct elections
       military thought they could control with an electoral college
civilians won w/ moderate pres and right-wing veep
    pres died before taking office
constitutional convention
    but done by incumbents
    created gov't dominated by delay
       difficult to govern

Saturday, March 26
Kenn: when called, go to Faculty staff lounge for customs face-to-face

Barry Ames, more on Brazil

single member district
PR -> closed list
    -> open list
parties created by military  ("->" means new name)
    ARENA -> PDS  -> PFL
    MDB-> PMDB -> (split) PMDB and PSDB
PT = Workers' Party
Fernando Collor de Melo
Fernandi Henrique Cardos = FHC
Bolsa Familia
participatory budget

last yr Ames was in a Brazilian city
    in car w/ friend
    cell phone rang
       he pulled over and anwered phone
       fine was $100
Barry amazed that they stopped
       most people do
    rules matter
    institutions matter

lots of rules we discuss today have basis in things discussed ystdy

sometimes rules have unexpected consequences

today start w/ one or tow principles

second story
    interviewing people in Brazil about 10 yrs ago
       about budget
    subjects recommened a particular economist in gov't
    discussed coruption
    a yr later he had his wife kidnapped and buried alive
       because she was going to tell about
                 his scheme to steal $30 mil
       now out, but under house arrest
          special rule for people with college degrees
    many deputies on the budget committee were taking bribes
       one of the first was from Bahia
Ames discovered he could predict indictments from
       electoral maps
    {maybe almost everybody gets incdoicte}

Principle 1:
    distinguish single member districts and proportional representation (PR)
    most of US is single member districts
    much of the rest of the world is proportional repr
       seats in proportion to number of votes in district
    in single member district, 51% gives you all the seats
          big distortions:  small majority can lead to big advantage in seats
Latin America uses PR
    duverge's(?sp) (Due-ver-jay) law:
            single member district produces two party system
lots of parties can lead to instability
    difficult to get things done
    hard to move away from status quo
most PR systems used "closed list"
    in Israel, vote for a party
    party has power in deciding who gets into legislature
Brazil has open list (the only one like it)
    vote for individual
    then the ones w/ most votes get electd
       but limit party electees to proportion
    result is weak parties
    Brazil has unlimited re-election
    guys w/ 400 & 300 votes got elected because
          the guy at the head of that party's ticket got so many votes

Brazil - states w/ 8-75 members   (should be 1-150)
    the small rural states have
        more representative than they should by one-man-one-vote

(fake maps)
stand for Sao Paolo
one environmental guy
    got all his votes in two places
       an island where environment important
       one district in Sao Paolo
can't get credit in district because other guys will barge in
    so this guy worked on environment

higranod de norte
elephant's trunk
    Vingt Jozabo was one candidate
    dominated the elephant's trunk region
clientelistic relationships
    still dominate the area

another example
evangelicals get votes all over
    10-15% in lots of areas
ideological issue
    death penalty guy
       gets elected on votes from people who want it
       (even though death penalty is disfavored by 80%)

corruption scandal guy
    "7 dwarfs"
    95% of vote in a few municipalities
          scattered across the state
    so how get this?
       the candidate has made deals in some districts
             often kickbacks
this pattern is disappearing
    (the 7 dwarfs are all in jail)
    electorate is getting smarter

these days candidates get elected in a region of districts
    do good job
    or have known family
corrupt politicians becoming less common
    does not indicate party strength
    instead indicates
rational voter thinking what the candidate can do for the local district
    "What can you do for my community?"
weak parties, individualistic politicians, fragmentation

Brazil is "hyper-democratic"
    if you can get enough people on your issue, you can get elected
candidates identify with particular interests

interests get represented well
interests get aggregated poorly
    except by "PT" (later)

in USA, there are party identifications
no one in Ames family for 107 yrs has voted for a Republican
    once they declined to vote

    parties got sclerotic
          too rigid, did not care about people

single member district
PR -> closed list
    -> open list

parties created by military
    conservatives: ARENA -> PDS  -> PFL  (now called libearal front)
    centrists: MDB-> PMDB -> PMDB and PSDB

-> = transistion or split

current parites
(left) PT,  PSDB, PMDB,  PFL (right)

PT = Workers' Party
    founded by Lula
    started in Sao Paolo
          workers, intellectuals
    many factions
    this is the one party that is from the grass roots
            (in Britain: tories founded by elites)
    where PT is strong, there is a split
          PT vs anti-PT

you cannot win an election w/ workers and intellectuals
       not enough workers any more
    poor women vote against PT !?
    how to expand party without losing base
    if you stay on the left, investors will pull out

1989 - first time PT ran for president
Lula running against
       Fernando Collor de Melo
             slick, charasmatic, (checkered past)
       Lula lost because unable to shake his socialist past
1992, Collor arrested for corruption
    his brother told on him
    banks now work just fine
    corruption payoff by check
          all tracable
military did not intervene
constitution worked just fine
veep became president
    didn't really like the job
            Fernandi Henrique Cardosa = FHC
    brought in FHC as a minister
          important guy. very intelligent
    2000% inflation
       economy not going well
    FHC fixed inflation
       almost overnight went to 5%
Brazil switched to a new currency
    salaries were high at that instant
    all of a sudden the poor could buy meat

1994 FHC wins easily
1998 FHC wins again
    Asian crisis
    economy stagnates
    global economy affects Brazil
    needed depreciation
    more unemploment
    "the bloom was off Cardoza's rose"

2002 Lula tries again
    now he is a moderate
    people think he can do the job
gov't guy was arrogant intellectual
evangelical candidate
guy with actress wife
Lula won and is now president

survey last June (2004)
    enormous unrest
    80% had voted for Lula
    now half would say he is just another politician
       they joined a bandwagon, without strong party identification
now, in 2005, economy is better
       so probably these folks think Lula is okay again
leftist gov't, but must be modearte to retain foreign investment
few new programs initially
    Bolsa Familia, money goes to parents if kids in school
zero-hunger program
    ~food stamps
    Ames thinks failure because Brazil has incompetent bureaucracy
    in Chile, the military improved bureaucracy
    not in Brazil

some important things not measured by income disparity
    % in school
    % w/ snaitation
    pension reform
    AIDS policies
Brazil has done well on these sorts of measures
    political structure needs reforms
       could make innovations more quickly
    so many parties
        makes it hard to change things
        and getting majority requires payoffs
    there is progess, but slow
there is talk every year of political reform
    eg, mixed open and closed list elections
    Bolivia, Colombia, and Venezuela have done this
ACM - was second most powerful guy in country
    in Bahia
    running down now after 30 years
       son had a heart attack

we will see
    PT try to grow
       try to nretain base
       try to modernize the bureaucracy
Friday, April 15

Fessler: Tomorrow, last class.
interport student: Bernardo Guzman Blanco
Today Venezuela
Prof Jim Lang, Venezuela
History intimately tied to oil
    {hmph: oil only in last 100 yrs}
from book Politics of Venezuela

US dependent on oil
    10 mil bbl/day
    10*365*$40 / yr
US is a big producer of oil
    about 5 mil bbl /day

Crude Oil Source
(in millions of bbl per day)

1985 peak 9 mil bbl used when importing 3 mil bbl
    importing 1/3
in 2001 import 9 mil produc about 6 mil bbl
    import 2/3
other suppliers
    saudi arabia, canada, mexico

Country of origin for oil imports (millions of bbl)

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
OPEC Saudi Arabia 456 48 436 460 558
Venezuela 57 112 243 420 448
Nigeria 307 102 286 227 320
Iraq 10 17 188 0
Algeria 166 31 23 10 211
Indonesia 115 107 36 23 13
Kuwait 10 1 29 78 96
Mexico 185 261 251 375 480
Canada 73 171 235 380 493
United Kingdom 63 101 57 124 106
Norway 53 11 35 94 111

    {I've omited a few countries with low numbers.
    But nowhere near enough to explain the discrepancy in total
    between this table and the one above.}

for 2000
    import 3 bil bbl
       vene 1.2 mil bbl/day
       mex 1.3 mil
       saudi 1.5 mil

if venezuela oil goes away, US is in trouble
    hard to replace 1.2 mil bbl / day

1973-1993 heyday for venezuela
    high prices for oil  
    $1.4 bil 1971
    $9 bil 1976
    suddenly Venezueal is wealthy
gov't undertook "Great Venezuela" projects
two political parties
dominated 1958-1998
    alternated presidency
good times didn't last
    began to unravel in 1980s

(Mexican oil production)

$/bbl mil bbl $ value
1973 3.39 165 0.6
1974 11.29 238 2.7
1975 11.02 294 3.2
1976 11.77 326 3.8
1977 12.88 358 4.6
1978 12.93 442 5.7
1979 18.65 586 10.9
1980 30.87 708 21.9
1981 32.50 844 27.4
1982 33.47 1003 33.6
1983 29.31 981 28.8
1984 27.03 1024 27.7
1985 26.44 987 26.1
1986 11.60 912 10.6
(Venezuela is similar to Mexico)

1973  $3 /bbl
1980 $30/bbl  value of Mexico exports $21 bil
1982 max of $30 bil
1983 income drops $5 bil
    price of oil dropped by $4/bbl

why didn't scholars go to Venezuela in 1980s
    because too expensive
    Venezuelas flocking to Miami to shop

Great Venezuela
    heavy industry
    buy out foreign companies

1983 - devaluation of peso
    (when oil income dropped)

Perez 1974-1978
Campins 1979-1983
huge international debts
    Brazil, Mexico owed $100 bil
    Venezuela: $43 bil
interest rates increasing rapidly in US
   and debt tied to US rates
    debt service hugely costly
interest rates peaked in 1985
    stayted high for 6-7 yrs

what is Venezuela to do?
    Pereq reelected in 1989
    "Great turnabout"
     make ordinary people sacrifice to pay bills
          military called in
                military uncomfortable
military people began rethinking
    caraczo - big Caracas explosion
    two coup attempts in 1992
    Perez impeached 1993
Chavez accepted going to prison instead of lots of people being killed
Caldera elected 1994-1998
1998 Chavez elected w/ 56% of vote
constitituional convention
    lots of popular turmoil
            makes elites uncomfortable
Venezuela had been very pro-US
Chavez doesn't like military interventions
        not a strong friend of US
        actually just wants to be independent
    works closely w/ OPEC  (has long been a member)
    to keep pirces high  
Chavez has ties to Castro
referendum kept him in office in 2005

    tremendous opil,wealth
    internally divided
    complex interaction w/ US

there are also complications between Colombia and Venezuela
       Venezuela not happy w/ US anti-drug
    Colombian military chases drug armies into VEnezuela
    Vene not happy w/ American forces training an army in Colombia

{Jim gave me more detailed notes for the above lecture. As follows}
(Time Line: Venezuela
1958 dictator General Marcos Perez Jimenez overthrown
    Pact of Punto Fijo reestablishes a democratic system
    Two parties:
full name
name for members
AD Accion Democratica "adecos" Romulo Batencourt
COPEI Comite de Organizcion Politica Electorate Indepeniente "copyanos" Rafael Caldera
Christian Democratic
1958-1998 the two parties alternate power
       system called puntofujismo
    1959-1964 Betancourt (AD) is president
    1969-1973 Caldera (COPEI) is president
1973 oil prices begin to rise, doubling in one year
    Venezuela enjoys an oil boom
        that lasts until prices start to fall in 1982
    e.g., oil income went from $1.4 bil in 1970 (10% of GDP)
          to $9 bil in 1974 (40% of GDP)
    golden age of oil
    state invested in industrialization, health care, social secutiy, and education
1974-1978 Carlos Andres Perez (AD)  is president
    1976 nationalized the oil industry
    "Enabling Law" let Perez spend oil money however he wished
    spent billions and borrowed more billions
       to build his "Great Venesuela"
    nationalized steel industry
    created huge state companies
    Adecos got rich
       and money did trickle down to the poorest people
    the Bolivar (Venezuelan currency) grew strong
    thousands of middle-class Venezuelans shopped in Miami
1979-1983 Luis Herrera Campins (COPEI) is president
    continued lavish spending
    "the 4.30 era"
    Copyanos got rich
1982 - oil prices began to fall
1983 - 18 February ("Black Friday") Campins devalued the Bolivar
1984-1988 Jaime Lusinchi (AD) is president
    did little to stabilize economy
    oil prices still falling, state still borrowing money
1989 Carlos Andres Perez (AD) re-elected president
    did not complete his term
    foreign debt of $43 bil and no cash
       country was broke
    Perez announced his "Great Turnabout"
       more foreign investment
       agreements w/ IMF and World Bank
          to cut domestic spending and raise price of gasoline
       great shock to Venezuelans
          they didn't know how bad things were
    protests and riots across the country
       27 February - riot in Caracas, the "Caracazo"
    period of disilliusionment in politics
       people felt betrayed by leaders
       oil boom over
          and Venezuela had little to show for it
    state oil company (PDVSA) began diverting profits
          to overseas investments
                refineries, distribution systems
          tried to reduce tax load
    young military officers were planning a coup
1992 - 4 Feb - coup attempt by Hugo Chavez failed
       27 November - second attempted coup failed
1993 - Perez impeached
    weak interim government took over
    Caldera elected to a second term
          but from a coallition, not just COPEI
     for reconciliation, coup leaders were released
          including Chavez
Two new parties emerged
    Hugo Chavez helped found "MVR 200" (?MBR)
             Movimento Bolivariano Revolucionario
       required "Bolivarian" commitment
       oath to be "hard working, honest, and humble
          and exercise solidarity"
       for election, a less strict party MVR  (?MQR)
          Movimento Quinta Republica
    Causa R - more radical,
        more of Cladera's policies
               so they lost ground
    only party without ties to the failed past was MVR
            and Hugo Chavez
1998 - Chavez elected president - won w/ 56% of vote
    held referendum to elect an assembly to draft a new constitution
          backed by a coalition, "PP" (Polo Patriotica)
2000 - mega election in July
    all state and national elected officials had to stand for re-election
    PP swept to victory
    new constitution
       more power in hands of president
             especially if Congress passes an "enabling act"
       housewives and informal workers now covered by social security
       state supposed to reduce concentration of capital
          promote small and medium-sized companies
       name of country changed to Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela
Chavez has broken with the pro-USA outlook of previous governments
    not cooperate in working against Colombian drug lords
    condemned US bombing in Afghanistan
    {and probably not too keen on USA invasion of Iraq}
    Chavez has controlled state oil company
        strengthened OPEC
2002 - April Chavez survives coup attempt
    support from poor Venezuelans
    opposition junta supported by
       "the very oligarchy that squandered the country's oil wealth"

Interport lecturer
Irene Farrera (a noted singer; has lived in US)
sits w/ guitar
    "Buenas" - hello
(strums guitar)
(scrunches up face. looks unhappy, but smiling)
(switches to upbeat song)
    (not so scrunched up in the face; smile lines on forehead)

"Chavez" to "CH" word
signs all over "NO"vez
    means "yes for Chavez"
latest referendum: 60% for Chavez

She is
    1 of 6 children
    family is working middle class
       each generation must makes its own money
Venezuela is a class society
    name is important
mestizos (as is 70% of Venezuela)
    mix spanish, indian, african
27 yrs ago she moved to USA
    moved back last October
    family reunion last summer
       family mostly anti-Chavez
    cousin asked "How can you be for Chavez?"
1998 she opened paper in Eugene Oregon
       and there is Venezuela
80% is poor
    and they support Chavez
    so that is all she needed to hear
    {good for the poor; but only if he has sustainable policies}
"the blood calls you"
    in October she decided to come home
    people ask, "why?"
    (US is a big dream for many, so why go back?)
they make distinction between US gov't and US people
    (gov't un friendly, people friendly)
    {ignores the fact that the people elected the gov't}
she likes Venezuela since it has been preserved
    the same potholes and ruins as when she left
"it is paradise"
    has been for millions of yrs
    "we have managed to create Hell"
since Columbus, Venezuelans far removed from nature
it is hot
    everything is a struggle
don't need ot hoard for winter, don't have winter
if don't get it done today, tomorrow will be another beautiful day
500 yrs of colonization has harmed
"If you can, you can; if you cannot, you cannot."

example: car insurance
    started process before return
    6 mos. and still not insured
    the first piece of paper has not yet arrived
gasoline : US$0.25 / gal
    everybodt drives
no rules on roads
    there are rules, but driver decides whether to obey
brake only when absolutely have to
sense of humor and prayer both help

genetic code in Venezuela
    siesta highly recommended, espeically after lunch
there are two seasons: dry, rainy
but really four seasons:
    Christmas (oct - feb)
    Holy week
everyone always thinking about where they will go on next vacation

public transportation - very poor
    (except Caracas Metro)

as pedestrians, look in all four directions
    then: look again
drivers like to pass

be aware of people giving directions
    will give directions even if they don't know
"PiYa" - over there (with lifting arm, no pointing)

lots of English used for marketing, but it's not really English
    "chewchewaria" - snack shop
not too many speak English

Vanezuelans are Americans
"gringo" is not unfriendly

while driving, look for
big yellow M on the road
    (ask me in private for the meaning)
    {"on the road" confused me.
    I thought it might mean the French "merde", feces.
    But no, the M's are beside the road:
       signs for a large American vendor
            of beef-related products.}
otherwise there are no public toilets
always travel with toilet paper, even in presidential palace

everything grows well
great food
juices: papaya, guava, passion fruit, ...

arapa - main staple food
    hot grilled corn bread
    slice open, put in fresh cheese, meat, ...

recipes are on her website

when in doubt, don't ask
    (joke about smoker on bus who "didn't ask")

"quatro" - Venequelan 4 string guitar
    "looks like a ukelele on steroids"
horopo - from central plains
    (border w/ Colombia)
    no marked borders in that region

(plays a horopo, sings same)

"Thank you for opportunity to be with you."
"This is my first day ever at sea."
Playing music helps.
Sway may be from music or from the ocean swells.

For more about Chavez and Venezuela, read
    10 Myths and Realities (from
she wants us to know the "truth"

drumming piece
(drums on front of guitar; sings)

Saturday, April 16

9:29 Fessler
    exam tomorrow
    two things today. He talk. Then Evaluation.

About to give a lecture given on previous voyages. And it is on the net on various web pages. My apologies if you have read it. I have updated it for this voyage. {Fessler's published version follows. Where I had comments during the lecture, they are interspersed here.}

As far as I know, there is no course taught anywhere…in any university or any country…that is quite like this one. You have heard from a lot of different lecturers…representing many different disciplines. History. Economics. Music. Sociology. Political Science. Oceanography. Anthropology. Theater. Religion. Biology. What kind of course is this, anyway? What kid of course talks about the temples of Angkor one day and ocean currents the next? Female circumcision and media and haiku and Hinduism and Ho Chi Minh?

What kind of course tries… in one semester…to enrich your experience…not only of the world, but of ten specific countries? No, wait, scratch two…add another one. Wait…Hawaii’s not a country. Zigzagging around the dateline. January 25th…January 27th. What happened to the 26th? A hole in the space/time continuum. Smack. The gods are angry. Wham. Waste baskets and televisions bouncing off the walls. Furniture tumbling over people…but don’t put your feet on the furniture! Wait. Where are we now? Fly non-stop to Shanghai. Okay…one stop. Wait some more. Over the dateline again. Where are we now? Does anybody have any idea what day it is? What a long strange trip this has been.  {scattered applause}

I knew from the beginning that there was no way that we could do everything in Global Studies. I remember telling the faulty that we could easily spend the entire semester on any one of the topics that I was asking them to present in 30 minutes. The history of China…Apartheid… Buddhism…in 30 minutes? So what was it all about? What was this kaleidoscope of information intended to do for you?

Let me take you back to that first session of Global Studies and repeat a few of the things that I said to you then. Anyone who has been around the world should not come back unchanged. {I'm doing the best I can. Having grown up a preacher's kid, I had the "help the poor" mission drilled into me from an early age. It was so depressing that I've long since tuned it out.} You can do it, of course. People do. They travel around the world and stay in Western hotels and eat at Western restaurants and watch CNN. They may hear that India has a caste system…they may see the Candomble women with their colored necklaces. But all they come back with is a lot of pictures and video. They’ve seen the sights.

But as you know, the experience is very different when you know why the Candomble women wear those necklaces. When you know what it means. And when you understand how the caste system developed…and how it is intertwined with India’s history and religion…and how it affects relationships and politics and everything else in India. That was one of the aims of Global Studies – to help you see below the surface. To help you understand the underlying dynamics so that your experience would be richer…deeper…more profound. To help you become a “world traveler”, not just someone who has been around the world.

{There is a curious paradox here. If one just travels without Global Studies, one certainly does not see, as Fessler says. But having taken Global Studies the things one sees are not what's in front of you. The question becomes, "What is the advantage of an actual visit when everything interesting about a place is invisible when standing there?" Perhaps as a mathematician I am used to dealing with representations of reality rather than the messy stuff itself.}

Global Studies was also designed to give you a concrete experience of how the academic disciplines interrelate. You have learned that the theater of South Africa cannot be separated from South Africa’s history and politics. You have learned that you cannot fully understand the music of Brazil without understanding the slave trade…and you cannot fully understand the slave trade without understanding colonialism and economics and African religion and so on. Each academic discipline has given you a slightly different profile of what is in fact an interrelated whole. And you have learned that the more you know about one discipline, the more you need to know about the others.

There was not enough time to do it all…but Global Studies was never intended to do it all. Only to assist you in getting here…today…with a greater global awareness.

Back at the beginning of the voyage I talked to you about the difference between individualism and collectivism. You had just come on the ship…650 of you…from different backgrounds, different schools, different religions, different countries…with different interests, different dreams, different hopes, different plans. And in those first few days you were trying to get your sea legs…and just beginning to get to know each other. There was a lot of excitement and enthusiasm…mixed with some apprehension about how the voyage would unfold…about what it would be like to travel around the world with all these strangers.

Look at you now. Shipmates. Friends. Many of you have found yourselves talking to people you never would have approached at home. Many of you have made friends with people you didn’t know you could be friends with. Slowly…so slowly that you can’t quite put your finger on when it began to happen…650 individuals became a community. The diversity is still there… maybe even more so than it was at the start. You are shaved and braided. Beaded and saronged. But you have learned to live with that diversity. And you have learned to be incredibly accepting and tolerant of each other. Want to shave your head? Okay. Don’t want to shave your head? That’s okay too. Guy wants to wear a skirt? Doesn’t bother anyone. Professor wants to wear a skirt. Yeah…whatever.

And it has been more than simply learning to accept the diversity. You have learned to appreciate the differences…to appreciate what each individual brings to the whole. It takes threads of different colors and textures to make a tapestry. It takes tiles of different sizes and shapes to make a mosaic. This is a collective society and each of you has your place in it. Not one of you can be removed without all of us losing something. Seniors and kids. Staff and students. Family members and crew members. Happy people. Cranky people. Serious people. Silly people. New Yorkers. Californians. South Americans. Canadians. Sky divers and poets. Myopics and mystics. Scientists and surfers. Philosophers and fools. Poker players. Preachers. Atheists. Smokers and weight lifters and drummers and sunbathers. Each of you belongs here. Not one of you can be removed without all of us losing something. Not one of you can be removed without disturbing the “wa”.

And we have achieved that in less than 100 days. Learning to look out for each other. Leaning to take care of each other. But most of all, learning to listen to each other. Social scientists have shown that the only way to break down the walls between people…or between groups of people…is to put them together in a situation that allows them to get to know each other…to get to see what they have in common. From the outside, it is too easy to make judgments about those who are different…to hold stereotypes. Us and them. But when we sit down together, the differences in our values…in our beliefs…in our assumptions…that looked so divisive from the outside, begin to be seen more as interesting variations…because we discover that there is so much more that we share.

We have shared a lot on this voyage. Some of it exhilarating. Some of it frightening. Some of it very funny. Some of it tragic. But all of it…enlightening. And those shared experiences have brought us together. Back in that first class I told you that you would have many new experiences on this voyage. Not one…not ten…not a hundred…but wave after wave of amazing experiences. To much to process all at once. Do you have any idea how much we have been through together? How much we have seen and tasted and touched and smelled?

Lunatic rickshaw drivers playing bumper cars in the streets of Chennai. Children without homes. Beggars without limbs. Open sewers and open sores. Neon nights in Hong Kong. Lion kills. Shantytowns. Dolphin and dong. Flying fish and flying pianos. Buddhism / Hinduism / Caodaism / Confucianism / Shintoism / animism / Feminism / Socialism / Communism / Capitalism / Nationalism / Colonialism. The smell of popcorn in the Piano Lounge. A legless man crawling toward you across the sidewalk. A masseuse…with wandering fingers. Candomble. Germaine’s Luau. The untouchables. Babies holding babies. Midgets on tiptoe. Table Mountain. Rolex knockoffs. Dock time. Hidden orixas and inner fetuses. Rough seas and cubed cheese. A dead bicyclist lying on the pavement. Tiger beer and Tusker beer. Suck and blow…and the Panda Hotel. The Rex…the Voice…the bistro…the Bantu. Vagina monologues and Abba interruptions. 45 degrees to port…45 degrees to starboard. Samba…sunsets…street mimes and Swahili. Poverty and paper shortages. Life boat drills and laundry day. Lantau Island. Robben Island. Larium. Imodium. Clogged toilets. No toilets. Head wobbles and thumbs up. Rain forests and rhinos. Polygamy and polyrhythms and pasta who-knows-what? A surrealistic Alice-in-Wonderland voyage where clocks are retarded and sweatsocks are bartered and doctors shampoo tangerines. {big laugh}

Ba-ai-ah! {A cheer heard at the soccer game}

(Come on…this is audience participation. All you soccer fans, let’s try it again)

Ba-ai-ah! Ba-ai-ah!

I knew you knew that. And that’s my point. It is our shared experience that brings us together as a community and which makes our differences much less important.

I was in a jewelry shop at the Waterfront in Cape Town with my wife. She was looking at rings. And there was a black African couple there. The woman was trying on earrings…and the salesgirl was oohing an aahing about how fabulous they looked. The woman’s husband was standing back a few feet…and for a split second we caught each other’s eye…with a look of mutual recognition. In that brief second, there was no black or white…just two clueless guys who both knew we were in danger of spending a great deal of money on little sparkly things whose allure we did not understand at all. It was a “guy” moment. And it was great.

I hope you have had moments like that. I think you probably have. Maybe it was a moment when someone smiled at you. Maybe it was a moment when language differences stopped being a barrier and you found yourself communicating. Or when you quit worrying about being ripped off and just started talking to a street vendor. Or when someone taught you to dance a new dance …or play a new instrument…or sing a new song. Don’t get me wrong. I don’t expect the world to change easily. But I do know that the only way it can change is by finding the common ground. The smiles…and the “guy” moments.

You now know, more than you have ever known, that you are privileged. Sure, some of you have more money than others. But each of you has more money than most of the people in the world. More money…more freedom…more education…more opportunity. You are privileged.   And in addition to that, you now have a global awareness. Don’t buy the myth that one person can’t change things. Whether you become a CEO or a lawyer or a Peace Corps volunteer doesn’t matter. You are in a position to do something…and a far better position than you were in three months ago. I don’t care if you spend the rest of your life in Kansas…you will always have a global awareness…an enriched understanding of your place in the larger whole. Make good use of that…and the voyage will never end.

Find a cause. Something you believe in…and work for it. {This would have been a good place for Fessler to describe the causes he has worked for; and the causes undertaken by those who've made previous voyages. Or are there none?} It doesn’t have to be some big sweeping world movement. In fact, one of the things you have learned on this voyage is that small local projects…like the Grameen Bank…are often far more effective and productive than large decisions made high above or far away by people who may have good intentions, but who don’t fully understand the local implications. It may seem trite to say, “Think globally, act locally”…but small community-based and community-designed projects work. And small changes are real changes.

We are all in favor of the big things, like World Peace and the abolition of hunger. Those are things that are easy to believe in, but very difficult to do anything about directly. That’s the reason why people throw up their hands and say, “One person can’t do anything”. Well, one person can. You can. You’re smart…you’re free…and you are a lot more independent and confident than you were three months ago.

You have communicated with people from different cultures, different backgrounds and different languages. You can figure out how to get from here to there in India, just because you want to. You can bargain with the best of them in Beijing. You have skills. If you can cross a street in Saigon, you can do anything.

This voyage has been an incredible gift. It has changed you. And now you’re going home. No you’re not. At least…not to the home that you left in January. When you get off the ship in Ft. Lauderdale, you are going to know that. You already know it in your head. But when you get off the ship in Ft. Lauderdale you are going to know it in your bones. You are going to feel it in your skin. The world that you left behind isn’t there any more.

There is a story that I like to tell my students about a fish in a fishbowl. There is a way in which a fish swimming around in a fishbowl knows nothing at all about water. Because water is so much a part of the fish’s life. It is surrounded by water. It is embedded in water. In that sense, the fish does not really know water. If you want the fish to really understand water, you have to take the fish out of the fishbowl and say, “Look, that’s water.” Now…if you put the fish back in…the water never looks the same again. Well, in a certain sense, we’ve all been taken out of our fishbowls. You have been out of your fishbowl for 3½ months. Now you have to go back.

It may not happen to you immediately. Caught up in the excitement of seeing your friends and your relatives…it may take a day. Maybe a week. But sooner or later there is going to be a moment. It might happen to you at the airport. It might happen to you in your hotel room. Maybe not until you get home. But sooner or later there is going to be a moment when you realize that the world just doesn’t “fit” the way it fit before.

Many of your friends…even your good friends…are going to seem suddenly, strangely… stupid. {Hmmph. Didn't need to go around the world for that.} You’ll want to talk about India. And they will say, “Yeah. Right. Sounds great.” And somehow that is just not going to be enough. And you’ll say, Yes, but I was in Varanasi…let me tell you about the colors and the smells and the people…and the bodies! Let me tell you about the burning bodies!” And your friends will say, “Uh huh”. And you will watch their eyes glaze over as they smile and nod and glance over your shoulder. So you’ll try Vietnam. “You know, I was in Vietnam. Saigon. Well, really it’s Ho Chi Minh City, but everybody just calls it Saigon. And they have the most unbelievable traffic! Hardly any traffic lights…and no one pays attention to them anyway.” And your friends will say, “Oh.” {Did I tell you about the three students discussing their Barbie dolls in Tanzania?}

And then your friends will suddenly get enthusiastic again when they begin to tell you all the great things you missed while you were gone. Like that big party…where everyone threw up on each other. And that really great episode of “Desperate Housewives”. And they will start telling you some of the lines…and getting excited as they are telling them to you. And you will be crawling out of your skin.

And you’ll say, “But I saw beggars. I saw children begging. Did you know that parents sometimes actually maim their kids to make them better beggars?” And your friends will say, “Awesome”. And you’ll know that they don’t get it. In fact, you might even begin to wonder if some of your friends really know what it means for something to be…awesome. Standing on the Great Wall of China and seeing it zig zag off across the mountains into the mist, that’s awesome. Waking up in a hammock on a small boat chugging up the Amazon River, that’s awesome. Floating in a hot air balloon over the Serengeti Plain at dawn, that’s awesome. The big party you missed while you were gone, isn’t.

And you are going to hear yourself sounding pretentious. You won’t feel pretentious, but you are going to hear yourself sounding pretentious. You know, here on the ship, if you are sitting around with one of your friends or your roommate and you start a sentence like, “One night in Saigon I was taking a rickshaw back from the War Remnants Museum…” That doesn’t sound odd, here. But can’t you just see your friends back home rolling their eyes? You are going to have to choose between sounding pretentious…and being silent. And you are going to long to be back here with us…where you can be normal.

And maybe you have a relationship back home. An important one. One that seemed really comfortable and promising…last January. Oh boy. All those emails you wrote? Or didn’t write? Some of them maybe feeling a little forced as you wrote them? That relationship might not feel right any more. Like an old pair of jeans that’s comfortable…but no longer your style. And you think, “I just can’t do this any more.”

Many of you have become independent on this voyage. Much more genuinely concerned about the world. About other people. Stronger. Braver. Better than you were last January. And the life that you had planned for yourself might not seem big enough any more. You might be thinking about changing directions. A new major. A new career. Maybe even a new country. Who are you going to talk to? How are they going to understand?

There are a thousand little ways in which the world is just not going to fit any more. And a thousand little reminders that it doesn’t fit. Television commercials are going to look really stupid. Houses and cars are going to be obscenely big. Restrooms are going to be disgustingly sanitary. Salespeople will look at you like you’re an idiot when you try to bargain. And everybody is going to have so much…stuff.

Even words aren’t going to seem the same. You’ll hear the word, “Shanghai”. Shanghai is a place…it’s not just a word. Cape Town. It all comes back. It’s not just a word any more. How could you possibly have imagined, back in January, that you would spend the rest of your life getting chills whenever you thought of the words, “Put on your life jackets and get into the hall right now!” With the steady haunting moan of the fog horn in the background. Who else will ever understand that? The world is never going to be the same again.

So what do you do? Well, I think one of the things you have to do is to forgive your friends. Looking at the pictures…listening to your stories…it’s not the same as having been there. You know that. You’ve looked at people’s vacation pictures before. You know that pictures can’t capture the same experience. They are going to be looking at it and listening to it…you’ve lived it. It has changed you…it hasn’t changed them. So you have to be a little patient with them… you have to be a little forgiving if they don’t quite get it. But I think that you can only do that if they are willing to let you be the person you have become. It is not the places you have been to …and it is not the things that you have done that have to be shared. It is who you have become that has to be shared. You don’t have to find people who have been around the world to understand you, but you have to find people to understand you. And if your old friends won’t let you be the person you have become, make new friends. There are a lot of people out there. You know those foreign students on your home campus? Those strange people with the accents? You see them wandering around confused and not knowing what building to go into. Been there. Done that. Go talk to them.

There are a lot of people out there who can confirm who you are…and who you are becoming. Even if that is not clear to you now. In many ways, the person you will be six months from now is still developing right outside of consciousness. You don’t know yet how much you have changed. And you won’t know for another six months or a year. It isn’t a good idea to make any major life decisions before then. You might want to…but give yourself some time.

Earlier I suggested that you might want to find a cause…something that you believe in…and work for it. I think that’s a good idea. But I’m not worried about you. I don’t think that you have to be urged to do that…you don’t even need to be reminded to do that. I think you are going to have to do that in order to feel at home. If the world doesn’t fit any more, then you have to create a world for yourself that does fit. A place where you can feel at home.

I have been on previous voyages…and gone home. So has Dean Wright…Dean Hansen… Kenn…Adrienne…and some others. We’ve all been taken out of our fishbowls and put back in again. And I think I can speak for all of them when I say, “Come on in. The water’s fine.”

Thank you.


{The water is fine in some places. In others? Maybe not. Fessler has mentioned one past voyager who stepped in the Amazon and got a persistent, painful itch that lasted three years.

If you do adopt a cause, you must read Gandhi. He has four principles for non-violent resistence. The fourth is the most often neglected: you will suffer. Indeed, the most admired non-violent people have been murdered, including Gandhi himself. I am sure, however, that foreknowledge of his end would not have detered Gandhi. Nor should fear deter you.}